Thursday, February 13, 2020

Accounting For Financial Instruments For Securities and Investment Term Paper

Accounting For Financial Instruments For Securities and Investment Companies and Banking Institutions - Term Paper Example In particular, the use of the SFAS 157 accounting policy differs in its application for the banking industry and investment companies. Recent bouts of credit crises have ended in lasting implications in which financial instruments have stringent regulations. International accounting standards demand that certain procedures get disclosure in the accounting and valuation of financial instruments and securities. The standards are highly specific on fair value measurements for different classes of financial instruments. The objective of this report is to debate the differences in accounting for financial instruments and securities in investment companies and banking corporations with regard to SFAS 175 (ASC 820-20). Advancements in economic perspectives are responsible for the unprecedented increase in the use of financial instruments. Therefore, accounting regulations bodies have had to come up with policy guidelines to keep pace with these changes. Policy changes in regulation of finan cial instruments will continue to affect the industry for many years to come. An intriguing and somewhat challenging issue pertaining to the use of financial instruments and securities is the difference in their usage across a range of industries. SFAS 157, on fair value measurements, seeks to fill this important role and resolve any obstructing issues. This paper discusses how the financial reporting standard varies for the investment and the banking industries. SFAS 157 (ASC 820-10) Fair Value Measurements The fair value measurement standard, which came into force in 2006, seeks to provide a unified framework that offers greater consistency in application of fair value measurement guidelines (J.P. Morgan, 2).SFAS 157, Fair Value Measurement, defines fair value, outlines a framework for its measurement through levels, and expands disclosures relating to fair value. The accounting statement provides a major pronouncement to the measurement of fair value for financial instruments, an d its effects spread to several corporate entities. The broad mandate of the SFAS 157 is to increase disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. IFRS standards require that the measure on securities be at fair value. Previously, accounting regulations on measurement of value for financial instruments were scattered and inconsistent, and the Fair Value Measurements guidelines’ intention was to lay a foundation for all fair value measurements, disambiguate the term ‘fair value’, and enhance disclosures falling under the fair value categorization (Deloitte, 7). To some extent, the disclosure of the financial instrument values and particularly securities differs with the industry type, notably for the banking and the investment industry. Terms on Fair Value Measurement In SFAS 157, fair value is the price at which an asset is saleable or transferrable between participants in the market at the date the measurement takes place (J.P. Morgan, 3). Inputs can eith er be observable and unobservable, where the observable inputs are indicative of the market conditions and the unobservable inputs indicate the company’s perspective on the price of an asset. An active market is one where daily price is obtainable and the fair value is easy to obtain without reliance on forecasting models or other forms of adjustments. Accounting for Financial Instruments and Securities Financial instruments are negotiable cash instruments with a certain financial worth. Financial instruments give an entity the right to receive or the commitment to provide cash or another financial instru

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Commercialization of Product & Services Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Commercialization of Product & Services - Essay Example It's only after such an analysis that the managers can decide when, how and where to launch their new product. This essay seeks to expound on the implications of launching a new product internationally in terms of commercialization. Degeeter (2004) suggests that before any form of commercialization, there is a need to invoke a strategic plan in order to define the new product in all dimensions. The product being launched into the market wisely identified based on the intention of the subject company. There is a need to come up with a unique product that the company can sustain in the long term in the market. Many economists have recommended the funnel model as the best for identifying a product that can be fully accepted in the market. According to the funnel model, the planning stage should begin by coming up with many ideas regarding possible goods or services and then narrowing down to one specific product by eliminating those that seem unappreciable. At the stage of elimination, the best product is identified by identifying the key characteristics of the products that will make it thrive in the international market. For instance, non-perishable goods and services are more acceptable for long distance transport than perishable goods. Launching, the final stage of product development during a commercialization process, is the most sensitive stage while introducing a new product and especially in foreign market. Launching occurs only when the company has certified that the new product will satisfy the standards that are deemed fit internationally. When the product has been launched into the market, there is never a point to turn back and hence the company has to prepare adequately before launching their product (Vijay, 2009: Han, 2008). International market requires that the market be standardized before it’s forwarded into the various target countries. The international market is characterized by different tastes that may vary from culture to culture, country to country or even from one continent to another. In standardization, there is need to understand the preferences that exists in the different foreign markets in order to come up with a product that will suit every person in the market. At this stage, there is need to conduct a reconnaissance pilot marketing that will assist in the comprehension of the customer value. Dave (2011) suggests that successful products are only those that solve the problems of many people in the global market. Effective entry models in global launch plans are necessary during commercialization process. One of the optimization mechanisms includes the proper timing of the launching period in order to hit the market when the demand of the new product is at a peak (Butler & Gibson, 2011). To do this, there is a need to evaluate the economic trend during the time of launching. The economy of any country has a great influence on the demand of any particular good as it determines the purchasing power of the people. The process of commercialization is expensive especially if the product requires to be rolled out into foreign markets. A lot of money is consumed in the planning, preparation and production stage and hence there is need to enter the market at a time when the returns are expected to be high. Most researchers have proposed that the best time to enter a market is when the economy of the country it at its peak on the ground that

Friday, January 24, 2020

My Own Worst Enemy Essay -- English Literature

My Own Worst Enemy What would happen to you if you must live your life in the hidden of your true self? The book that I recently read is called My Own Worst Enemy written by Carol Sonenklar; hence it was published in 1999 by the Scholastic Inc. In the book, Eve Belkin is a young-teen girl who has just moved to Michigan because of the returning of her mother to medical field works. Eve has hard times in her old school of getting fit-in. Therefore she decided moving to a new place is a great opportunity to reinvent herself. She started to live her life under playing a role of a normal girl who dresses nice and neat all the time to impress her family of course. And yes, Eve gets good returns for what she gave out. She got being friends with two very popular normal girls, Lisle and Kristine. Yet she does not really like them though, because their behavior toward peoples around them is very cold. Eve’s true self later was exposed to everyone at school, after Lisle surprisingly discovered how Eve Belkin’s true self is really look like at home. Eve decided not to act or dress like someone else anymore, because she got enough of uncomfortable out from it, and beside, she said to herself why bothers being someone who is she’s really hate. Therefore Eve started to be herself again by wearing her favorite comfy gray outfits to school. She still got friends who like her. Finally Eve gets to understand the fact that fitting-in is maybe was not a great idea at the first start because maybe everyone was meant to be different and original. Eve Belkin has a few problems in her life. And mostly it got influenced from her family troubles. Her father has just lost his car company job. And for a year, he could not find... ... in reality for a teen girl's life. For instance Sonenklar uses â€Å"cleanaholic† to describe how crazy Eve’s mother is with her neatness. She uses good sense of humor to grab readers' attentions. She got a good sense of style and tone in the story. She knows when the tone should be up and down. Throughout the whole story, the tone was kind of suspicious because Eve’s condition was always anxious and worried. By doing this, it helps readers to feel the main character’s feelings better. It helps because readers are able to put themselves inside of the main character's shoe. I would like to introduce this book to some of my friends, especially to the girlfriends, because I know they will love this book since it is so touching and so true about our girls' live of being a daughter in a family. Well over all, it is such a great book!! I know you will enjoy it too!

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Foundation and history of nursing and how it affects practice Essay

In order to fully understand our heritage, nurses must learn our professional genealogy – from how the profession evolved from ‘traditional’ ministering of the sick to the professionals we are today. Our history gives us a perspective in the traditions we have as nurses and a legacy to pass on to new nurses as they enter the profession. We learn what has influenced, motivated, and affected nurses in the past so that we can use that knowledge to influence our perspective in making changes that will benefit those who enter the profession in the future. Over the years I have observed a change in how we, as nurse and the medical profession, address pain. When I started nursing, you medicated the pain. To put it simply pain was pain – you medicated to relieve the pain. There was not a qualifier by the patient as to their perception of the intensity. Follow up was subjective as you asked the patient if they felt better – we didn’t ask them to quantify the relief they perceived from the medication given. As nurses, we now have data that validates our actions in our plan of care for our patients through evidence based practice. We are not doing something â€Å"because that is the way it has always been done†. We have logic and rationality supporting our care. As a profession we have licensure within our states that includes validation of continuing education. Outside of our licensure we have specialty certificates that attests to the hard work and knowledge those nurses have to achieve their specific certificates of expertise. One things that can be observed in learning the history of nursing is that nurses, throughout history, as well as today, demonstrate a drive to not only better themselves, but to better the community around them. Nursing is far more than switching out a bedpan and passing pills. It has time honored traditions as well as modern scientific sustenance behind the care of patients. I am proud to be a professional nurse.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Alcohol And Substance Abuse An Individual Behavior That...

Alcohol seeking behaviours and Substance use is an individual behavior that reflects underlying dysfunction in the family (Klagsbrun Davis, 1977; Stanton et al., 1982). Many researchers consider that the family has a crucial role in preventing delinquent behaviors and behaviors related to substance abuse. The quality of parenting has been linked to psychological well-being, stress and social support. It was also found to be a predictor of antisocial behaviors and substance abuse (Velleman, Templeton Copello, 2005). A child s family is responsible for the socialization process. It is important that the family helps the child socialize in a way that helps them adjust to the demands and possibilities of their environment and social circle. However, if the family does not succeed in this task, it can have a negative effect on the child s development and ability to adapt to the world outside (Velleman, Templeton Copello, 2005). Social learning theory (Bandura, 1977) suggests that people can learn automatically through observation rather than through personal experience, for example one can desire to drink simply by visual observations of others present near him in the activity of alcohol consumption and the symptomatic craving to drink raises (NIH, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2013). The social aspect of the theory stems from the assumption that behavior is learned through this direct process of conditioning, observation and experience resultsShow MoreRelatedDrug Addiction And Its Psychological Approach3081 Words   |  13 Pagesstructures in drug addiction. Studies discovered that the areas most affected by drug addiction were the anterior cingulate gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex which are measured regions linked with limbic structures. These subjects are activated in addictive substances during intoxication and withdrawal. 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Sunday, December 22, 2019

Psychological And Psychological Effects Of Drug Addiction...

is associated with them having a feeling of well-being. Psychological Dependence relates to an emotional need for a drug or substance that has no underlying physical need. An example, of psychological dependence would a person who stops smoking, but recovers physically in a short time. For an example of psychological dependence, one would look at the emotional need for nicotine, which is much more difficult to overcome. In the psychological stage of drug addiction, the users continually think they need the nicotine to stay calm, even though there is no physical need (alleydog.com).However, when there is chronic exposure to a substance; physical dependence can manifest itself in the appearance of both physical and psychological symptoms. Addiction is more a behavioral disorder that may or may not also include physical dependence. Physical dependence differs from addiction because it is a physiological state and not a dysfunctional behavioral syndrome. Psychoactive drug is a substance that acts to alter mood, thought, or behavior and is used to manage neuropsychological illness. Psychoactive drug abuses are generally classified within three major categories. These categories are depressants, such as alcohol and opioids; stimulants, such as amphetamines and cocaine; and hallucinogens. A depressant is a chemical compound that manipulates neurotransmission levels, thereby reducing arousal or stimulation in various parts of the brain. Depressants are widely usedShow MoreRelatedDrug Addiction- Physical vs. Psychological1334 Words   |  6 PagesTaylor Drugs and Drug Policy 28 April 2011 Drug Addiction—Physical vs. Psychological   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Research shows that an individual progresses from using drugs/substances, to being addicted to a drug/substance. This relationship with drugs (either legal or illegal) is complex because specific patterns of progression vary greatly from person to person. 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