Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Lost and Sex and The City Essay

By choosing any two programmes that you are familiar with describe and discuss what the term ‘Quality Television’ means. Quality television refers to the development and rise of quality television drama. The term ‘quality television’ however mostly refers to the emergence of quality broadcasters’ they themselves use to describe a genre/style of television programming that they argue is of higher quality than other genres. ‘Television is for appearing on, not looking at.’ (Coward, 1993: 436) They are referring to the kinds of programmes that are perceived as more expensively produced and, especially more culturally worthwhile, due to their subject matter or content. In the history of ‘quality’ television, it presents a daunting set of challenges. There is no central register of quality programming quality style is defined by depth and warmth of its characters and the use of self reflexivity and the notion that the writers and viewers enjoyed an unusual degree of freedom. The term also associates mostly on the issue of gender representation. In this essay I will discuss television shows, Lost and Sex and The City and how they have both proved great quality television through their success and interesting storylines. (Jancovich, Mark, Lyons, James, Quality Popular Television, 2003) The complex characters, settings and dilemmas are what make good quality television. This brings me to Lost. Lost is an American television drama that follows the survivors of a plane crash that end up on a mysterious island. Each episode typically features what happens on the island as well as a secondary storyline of the characters lives. Most of the characters in Lost are driven to reconcile a patriarchal crisis; Jack must resolve an ‘Oedipal’ conflict with his alcoholic father, John Locke must redeem his masculinity and after being manipulated by his father and rebuild his disabled body and Kate and Sawyer are repetitively haunted by their fathers and dark pasts. The whole island is an experimental site, emphasizing the constant distress of mystery that the island holds and the unknowing. Within this, each episode continues a story about each character, most encountering their violent fathers and how this will shape the collective islands culture. In one particular episode, ‘The 23rd Psalm’, flashbacks consist between Nigeria, the present day and a Nigerian beechcraft airplane that crashed on the island. ‘Mr Eko’ becomes aware that drug addict ‘Charlie’ has possession of a heroin filled Virgin Mary statue that he realizes has a connection to his own past. After discovering the plane on the island, Eko finds his brothers corpse along with it. The episode has an overall theme of redemption of Mr Eko’s religious leanings that have created a major turn in his life. This also challenges our assumptions about coincidence and fate and how the overall series depicts spirituality and realism through the characters pasts. ( The director, ‘JJ Abrams’, creates strong character development and long term plotting which is why the Lost series remained so strong and captivating for audiences. The fact that people were being forced to live together and survive, made it interesting to watch because relationships were created very fast and viewers wanted to see love, fights and dramas as well as action and supernatural happenings on the island. In the first pilot episode of Lost, the first scene shows an eye close-up and character ‘Jack Shephard’ as he awakens in a jungle and notices a yellow Labrador retriever darting through the forest. He then runs through the jungle to a beach where he is faced with the disaster of the plane crash and people fighting for survival. Quality TV dramas are what make audiences want to keep watching and Lost is a great example of this because in the very first scene, viewers are already given that mind blowing experience and the drive to keep watching. The characters are also faced with the unraveling of the islands mystery and the motives of the unknown ‘Others’ who may also inhabit the island. The series tracks two major, interconnected themes; first, the struggles to survive and live together on the island and second, the lives of the fourteen main characters before the crash which is retold through flashbacks. It doesn’t follow the stereotypical television back story and allows viewers to become connected with the characters, their secrets and motivations. Jack is a doctor becomes the leader of the group; helping Charlie kicks his drug addiction and encourages ‘Shannon’ to pursue her relationship with ‘Syid’. Jack is seen at the very beginning of the series and in the last episode in the last scene where it re creates the first scene again only in a different context. The way Lost starts off, during; with all the inconceivable and unthinkable story lines, makes it so mesmerizing for audiences. After six seasons of plot twists, there was a completely thrilling but not entirely logical finale. Audiences across the world became worried about what Lost would end like and how everything could be explained because of its constant complexity. Lost is full of mind puzzling and gripping drama that has become a huge success through its mind blowing performances. ( Another American quality TV show is Sex and The City. Broadcast from 1998 until 2004, the comedy-drama series follows the lives of a group of four women; three in their mid thirties and one in her forties and throughout their different natures and constant changing sex lives, they remain great friends with high confidence. Sex and The City becomes quality television through the continual of its quirky storylines and modern social issues that explore the differences between friendships, relationships and revolves around femininity. The main character ‘Carrie Bradshaw’ is the narrator of each episode which is structured through her train of thoughts. Throughout the entire series, Carrie is entangled with her on and off relationship with ‘Mr Big’ and whose name eventually is revealed to be John Preston. Each character has their own individual unique personalities which female audiences can relate to and connect with. Sex and The City has proven to be one of the most successful and controversial television programmes of the last decade. In transforms the idea of the incisive widow into the life of the single urban female and emphasizes an upper class life. It also presents sophistication and yet, much of the generic and stylistic conventions, are by no means new to this specific show. (LeMay, Matt, Sex and the City and the Discourse of Quality Television: 2) ‘Once upon a time on a small island not too far away, there lived four smart, beautiful women who were all very good friends’. (LeMay, Matt, Sex and the City and the Discourse of Quality Television: 2) This quote already establishes the genre of the show and the kind of characters the audience may expect to see. Much of the criticism both positive and negative, show degrees of realism which suggests how they are entwined in the history of industry and market standards of quality television and determines gender and class. Many other dramas can be traced back to earlier ‘realist’ family sitcoms and still remain relevant to contemporary quality television such as Sex and The City. There is a particular emphasis on self reflectivity and the program’s representations and intersexuality. Through Sex and the City, the relation to feminism and sexual taboos positions itself in the history of television. Intersexuality occurs through the importance and real-life impact of the cultural phenomenon called ‘Sex and the City’. (Akass, Kim, McCabe, Janet, Reading sex and the city. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004) In conclusion, the serve to clearly set out the intended debate and issue of ‘Quality TV’, is the way in which critics and audiences currently define it and supplying a broad overview of the critical contentiousness of quality TV as a collective term. Quality Television is about captivating storylines, unique characters and enabling viewers to want to watch excellent programming. Within this, audiences are able to connect with the show through the interesting structures that are included in them. Bibliography Books: Jancovich, Mark, Lyons, James, Quality Popular Television, 2003) McCabe, Janet, Akass, Kim, Contemporary American Television and Beyond, 2007) Akass, Kim, McCabe, Janet, Reading sex and the city. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004 Articles: (LeMay, Matt, Sex and the City and the Discourse of Quality Television: 2) Websites:

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Comparison of the Odyssey and O Brother, Where Art Thou?>

Platt Pre AP English 9 5/9/2012 O Brother, This is Not Even Close To the Odyssey Everyone loves to immerse themselves into a dramatic and extraordinary story with evil monsters, brave hero's, and the desperate will to survive. It allows you to escape your troubles and take you to a new and exiting please with each and every second. However, there are some stories that simply do not capture the essence of breathtaking adventure. The movie O Brother, Where Art Thou? created by the comedic team of Ethan and Joel Coen, simply does not capture the perplexing classic story.O Brother, Where Art Thou? Is the big screen remake of Homer's epic poem, â€Å"The Odyssey†. This original story is about the adventure of Odysseus as he escapes his seven year imprisonment from the goddess Calypso. This Epic hero battles numerous monsters on his desperate attempt to return home to his wife Penelope, whom he meets again in a heartfelt reuniting. However, in the re-make film, a man named Ulysseus is a prison escapee that is desperate to keep his wife, Penny, from marrying another man, lying and cheating his way to reach his goal.The Coen brothers have created such a disappointing excuse for capturing a real hero and his adventures to be reunited with his true love. It is near idiotic. The story is so foggy and distracted by the unneeded details, and it abandons the true meaning of the heartwarming story. When a person imagines the heartfelt reuniting of a husband and wife after being separated for seven painstakingly long years, you dream of the relief and joy of the meeting. The story of â€Å"Penelope† in â€Å"The Odyssey† by Homer reflects this idea exquisitely. The Coen brother's O Brother, Where Art Thou?Has a somewhat similar take on the story of Penelope. No matter the specific and thoroughly shown facts that the epic poem is much greater than the comedic film. The wife of Odysseus in the epic poem is named Penelope, and extremely similar to the name of Ulysseus's wife, Penny. In the movie, they were separated by the federal imprisonment of Everett Ulysseus, and the time it took to return back home. Also similar, the original hero Odysseus was kept from his wife Penelope by his imprisoner Calypso for many years, and the additional years of fighting for his life to return home to her.Also, in the poem, Odysseus was in his hometown while he saw his wife for the first time after all of those years. So was the place that Ulysseus was reunited with Penny in the film. There are few similarities between the film and the epic poem, but it is still believable that the similarities can not be compared to the shining differences. The poem is such an inspirational and heartfelt spectacle, it makes the film appear unimportant and no deep emotion involved with it. There are extremely few similarities, but there are certainly no shortage of differences between these two stories.Penelope is such a heartwarming, in depth part of the poem where ody sseus meets his wife once again. That is how it takes place in the epic poem anyway. In the film, it is the short, awkward moment of Ulysseus and his wife meeting again, to find out that Penny has completely and totally moved on. Also, Odysseus, in the poem, was disguised as a beggar, and his wife Penelope, had no idea who he really was. She tells him of the whole in her heart ever since her love disappeared, and he knowingly reassured her that her love would return.However, in the film, Ulysseus angrily approached Penny and demanded why she would ever lie to their children about his death. Penny went on to describe about how she had not missed him one bit. A complete and utter opposite of how the poem's Penelope had felt. In â€Å"The Odyssey† Penelope had many, many suitors that she would never accept for marriage. They ate her out of house and home, practically destroyed her life, only making her want Odysseus even more. All too differently, in the film, Penny had but one suitor, who she was set to marry that weekend, with no remorse.Ulysseus didn’t even disguise himself to her. This entire reenactment was both rude and uncaring. It showed no relief in the fact the hero of the story survived and was so heroic that he beat the odds. Indeed, it was very disappointing of a story. Most movies have a change to a story to emphasize or make it clearer to the viewers. However, it is clearly disappointing when the changes to the story are unnecessary. Everyone has heard of the saying â€Å"the book was better than the movie. † This is the case for the film translation of â€Å"The Odyssey†.The scene of Penelope is once of those specific scenes where it would be more reasonable to make it more similar to the original. However, it did work for a more comedic plot line. It exemplified crude humor and a lack of true deep emotions. It is exactly what the Coen brothers think when it comes to movie creating. Even though the changes are completel y pointless, it adds a somewhat depth to the all-around immature story. But it also creates this unloving relationship between the hero and his love.This relationship is full of jealousy and unneeded feuding. It may do something for the movie, yet it is simply not enough to make it enjoyable. When a person sits down with a good book or a bowl of popcorn waiting for a movie, it is assumed that there will be a thrilling, capturing story. Unfortunately, the film, O Brother, Where Art Thou? , directed by the team of brothers, Ethan and Joel Coen, is not one such story as determined by the disappointing and idiotic differences to the original epic poem â€Å"The Odyssey†.The differences in the two were blaringly overwhelming in comparison to the similarities. In this case, the differences did not help in rewriting this incredible tale of â€Å"The Odyssey†. Even in the most deep, beautiful scenes such as Penelope, there was a distinct failure by the creators of the film. Pe nelope called for such romance and heart-lifting emotion, the crude joke of it was almost criminal. Even if the film was taken in a more serious direction, it would have only scraped the surface of such a beautiful epic poem.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Various Methods of Electricity Production Essay

Various Methods of Electricity Production - Essay Example Even though these early humans had no understanding of electricity, the movie depicts them looking for lightning to reignite their fire! It is clear in the film that the first fire available to mankind came from electricity in the form of lightning (Cook 7). It seems that electricity was the first real power used by man. Long before the lever, the wheel or the windmill mankind was reaping the benefits of fire created by the natural electricity of lightning. Man made electricity has earlier roots than one might suspect as well. Evidence has been uncovered that the ancient Egyptians used crude batteries to produce electrical charges (Mythbusters, 2005). The Egyptians fashioned clay pots as containers and filled them with high acid citrus juice. They then connected primitive cables made of copper to the clay jars. On the popular Discovery Channel series Mythbusters the cast recreates the Egyptian battery to test if this notion of early batteries is fact or myth. Much to their surprise the primitive invention does in fact produce a very small electrical charge. They speculate that Egyptians might have used this electricity to amaze and frighten pharos's subjects. By hooking the batteries up to statues of the pharos and other deities the ancient Egyptians gave their pharaoh a little help in the "powerful and mystical" department (Mythbusters, 2005). We will likely never know the whole story behind these ancient batteries but it is interesti ng to consider how early mankind was experimenting with electricity. Since ancient times many forms of electricity generation have been discovered and utilized. But first, in order to understand these various sources it is important to understand the history and development of electricity as a primary source of energy. The Rise of Electricity The ancient Greeks, Romans, Chinese and the Persians all experimented with crude inventions to harness electricity with very limited success. Even the explosion of science during the Middle Ages in Europe added little to the understanding electricity (Dell & Rand,125). In 1214 Roger Bacon experimented with the properties of amber and lodestone but electricity was primarily used to "amuse and frighten the ignorant" (Canby,12). Like the Egyptians, European scientists of the Middle Ages viewed electricity as a "parlor trick" and it's usefulness was deemed limited (Dell & Rand, 125). It wasn't until 1600 when William Gilbert, physician to Queen Elisabeth, wrote an impressive paper on magnetism, that the scientist of Europe began to seriously consider scientific study of electricity (Canby,13). The De Magnete written by Gilbert was widely read by the educated class of Europe and interest in electricity surged. Gilbert also created the first list of elements that contain electric and magn etic properties (Wikipedia,2007). In 1660, Otto van Guericke built the first machine to produce an electrical charge (Canby, 18). The glass globe had a sulfur ball inside and created a lightning like charge that amazed the people of Guericke's day. During this time advances in the understanding of electricity was painfully slow and it wasn't until 1709 that the next big discovery was made. In England, Francis Hawkenbee built an improved version of the "glass globe" and conducted many other useful experiments. Next, in 1729 Steven Gray of the Grayfriars School in England discovered

Sunday, July 28, 2019

The American Military Failure in Vietnam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

The American Military Failure in Vietnam - Essay Example The fact that the United States never had a real sense of purpose in this war, and the fact that the Vietnamese were able to bog down the American military, are the key reasons why the Vietnamese were victorious in this conflict. The conflict, of course, began when the French decided to release their colonial claims to Vietnam. The French army was driven from Vietnam in 1954, resulting in the Geneva Peace Accords. This created a temporary partition of Vietnam at the seventeenth parallel, until 1956, when nationwide elections would be held. While the Communist powers in the Soviet Union and China did want the entire nation of Vietnam to become Communist, they predicted that the 1956 election would accomplish their aims without bringing the United States into the conflict (The Wars for Vietnam: 1945 to 1975). Rather than initiate another conflict similar to Korea, the American government began a concerted effort to win the political minds of those living to the south of the Communist zone. A major part of this effort was the creation of SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization). Initially, the American efforts were successful: the 1956 elections brought Ngo Dinh Diem, a firm opponent of Communism, to power in South Vietnam (Kaiser, p. 36). However, Diem claimed that the North Vietnamese were preparing to take the southern half of Vietnam by force, and the Americans began aiding his military maneuvers against the northern half in 1957. Diem used a variety of brutal internal measures in South Vietnam to quell the Communist insurgency, including Law 10/59, which permitted authorities to hold anyone who was suspected of being a Communist indefinitely, without bringing charges (Kaiser, p. 41). Over time, Diem became increasingly autocratic, which made him an increasingly difficult leader for the United States to support. In response, the Communist insurgency began to increase the amount of violence in its protests (The Wars for Vietnam: 1945 to 1975). The National Liberation Front was the official organization for those in South Vietnam who wanted to overthrow Diem's government. Created on December 20, 1960, the NLF had only one requirement for membership: applicants had to be opposed to Diem's rule. While the American government scorned the NLF as a mere puppet of the North Vietnamese Communist government, giving it the slur "Viet Cong," there are many who were inside and outside the NLF who claimed that the majority of its members were not Communists - thus showing how unpopular Diem had actually become (Kaiser, p. 44). President Kennedy's policy toward Diem was neither full assistance nor full rejection: the United States supplied advisers and equipment to the South Vietnamese government, but did not commit a large-scale complement of troops to assist Diem's military in its conflict against the NLF (The Wars for Vietnam: 1945 to 1975). This level of assistance was not sufficient to keep the South Vietnamese government stable. After Diem's brother led raids on the Buddhist pagodas throughout the country, claiming that the priests were harboring Communists, there were protests throughout the c

Discuss the readings. What did you think of each of the stories Did it Essay

Discuss the readings. What did you think of each of the stories Did it have any meaning in your life Is it still relevant today Things you didn't like - Essay Example death is inevitable, but we must have faith that life will go on: â€Å"Death closes all; but something ere the end,/Some work of noble note, may yet be done† (Tennyson). He emphasizes that as long as we are alive, we can use our time to do something positive, so that we can have a meaningful existence. Arnold reminds us to have faith in each other. Without faith, we will be â€Å"Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,/Where ignorant armies clash by night† (Arnold). Many people fear what they do not know, such as other races, cultures, and experiences. Arnold asks us to trust each other, because without trust, it is easier to fear and hate, and consequently, it will be easier to fight with each other. Faith is one of the glues that bind humanity. Without it, these poems say that we will be prone to hate and anger. When we hate and we are angry, it is easier to stage wars. We live in a dog-eat-dog world, but sometimes, we have to pause and think about the kind of person we want to be and the kind of humanity we want to promote among our children. If we want to choose something to feel then, may it be faith, because faith will help us become better people and can help us provide a more peaceful and tolerant society to our children and their children, as

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Essay Example In addition to that, the fair – trade movement promotes securing the rights of the marginalised sectors from the developing nations (EFTA, 2006). Indeed, the fair – trade movement has been one of the most constant and most unwavering criticisms of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) policies of deregulating barriers to trade. It is the case that the effectiveness of both the World Bank and the IMF are criticised because of its failure to further stand for the concerns of the developing world, including the interests for greater equity in trade (Share the World’s Resources (STWR), no date). Nonetheless, both these Bretton Woods Institutions together with the fair – trade movement are supposedly means to reduce the poverty occurring globally. With the contextualisation of the background of this research investigation, basically, the paradoxical function of fair – trade movement is observed. ... On the one hand, another vantage point proposes that this fair – trade does constitute a real alternative to the â€Å"Washington Consensus†. Given this contradicting points of view, this paper considers the need to critically review, analyse, understand and explain what really the role of the fair – trade it serves. Meanwhile, this paper mainly delves at discussing the function of the fair – trade movement in relation to World Bank and IMF. In order to further understand the focus of this paper, it intends to specifically obtain the following information. First, it points out to establishing what the functions of the World Bank and IMF are. Second, it seeks to grasp an understanding of the Washington Consensus. Third, it wants to analytically determine how the fair – trade movement is currently doing between the developed and developing nations. Through rooting out and analysing such data, it can finally discuss whether fair – trade is an ex tension of World Bank and IMF’s policies or if it constitutes a real alternative to the Washington Consensus. It is the case that there have been so many attempts in stating and assessing the functions and aims of fair – trade, World Bank, IMF and Washington Consensus in the context of development. It is in this regard why this paper is of significance. This paper is of importance because development is so much a relevant concept not only in the field of sociology but really in every part of the world especially that of the developing ones. By means of development, fair – trade, World Bank, IMF and Washington Consensus are really opportunities to achieve development especially among the disadvantaged nations. Review of Related Literatures This section of the paper will first present a

Friday, July 26, 2019

Podcast Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Podcast Summary - Essay Example ies like China which recycled plastics and sell it back eventually to Americans and European countries which recycled shredded papers and turn it into recycled papers, toilet papers, tissue papers, etc. However, they pointed out that not all trash are recyclables. When a person is able to gain profit from trash, it is called recyclables; whereas if it’s not, it is called trash/garbage. Curious as to where her used yogurt containers and Wall Street journal went through and to understand the flow or process of recycling business, the woman in the podcast followed Tom to a garage and found out that these items are recycled and produced approximately a 100-billion dollar earnings. This is where the people in the podcast linked recycling industry to microeconomics – in terms of economic prices. Microeconomics deals with the study of the economic behavior of an individual units of an economy (such as the recycling industry) and how does it affects the choices of an individual, makers, markets, and the law of demand and supply. For instance, the podcast revealed that recycling plastics is affected the price of petroleum in the market as plastics are considered as petroleum products. If the price of the petroleum gets lower, then the price of the fresh plastics are lower than the recycled plastics. In return, those who are engaged in recycling plastics industries h ave to lower their production of recyclable plastics as the demand for it would be low. The same goes through for recycled papers when European currency is higher than US’ currency. In microeconomics, we tackled about the effect of a single industry to the economic behavior of demand, supply, price, and

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Contextual Analysis Essay about The Vietnam in Me

Contextual Analysis about The Vietnam in Me - Essay Example Throughout the narrative, readers are introduced to O’Brien’s lingering feelings of intense despair and sorrow over the fact that the most horrid experience of his life was due to his own personal need to find and secure love. This contextual analysis will analyze how O’Brien used his trip back to Vietnam to discover what imprint his war experience truly left on his heart and if he could ever learn to trust love again. In order to establish the connection between love and Vietnam, this analysis will center on O’Brien’s views on his war experience and their impact on his personal life, his driving need to seek out love and how the guilt over his desire for love led to his contributions as a soldier in Vietnam and continually destroy the author’s chances for true happiness. In beginning this contextual analysis, the first area to analyze is how O’Brien viewed his time as a soldier in Vietnam and how this experience impacted his life. As he began his narrative, O’Brien sets an immediate tone for how he felt about his time in Vietnam. â€Å"On Gator, we used to say, the wind doesn’t blow, it sucks. Maybe that’s what happened - the wind sucked it all away. My life, my virtue† (1). Although O’Brien has obvious despair over the events that unfolded during his time in Vietnam, he was not alone in these feelings. Despite the over two million men who were forcibly deployed to Vietnam through the draft, as well as those who voluntarily enlisted, American society forgot their efforts to further democracy as these men were essentially treated as outcasts upon their return. According to Harvard Sitikoff in â€Å"The Postwar Impact of Vietnam,† the after effects of fighting in Vietnam were more dangerous than being i n the war itself. â€Å"Although most veterans did succeed in making the transition to ordinary civilian life, many did not. More Vietnam veterans committed suicide after the war than had died in it. Even more - perhaps three-quarters

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Trade Unions in Great Britain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Trade Unions in Great Britain - Essay Example Thus, by the end of 2005 the number of those, who take part in the activity of British trade unions, has reduced from 14 to 8 million people. One of the main reasons for such sharp reduction was in the fact, that British workers didn't see any benefits of collective representation. If the numbers of trade unions members are compared, it will be seen that 35.5% of the UK workers were trade unions members in 1993, while their number has declined to almost 28.8% in 2004. (Howe, 2004) This decline is reflected through both absolute numbers and relative percentage of the labour force, presented in the private sector. The number of those, who participate in trade unions in public sector, has nominally increased due to the general increase of this sector labour force, but as a percentage this membership has also fallen. The general profile of trade union members has also changed during this period, with women leaving them and middle-income earners becoming the main force of trade unions now adays. The main reason for the constant decline in the trade union membership in the UK lies in general decline of the 'manufacturing base within the UK and the fragmentation of the workplace, linked to outsourcing and private sector influence in the public sector' (Beaumont, 1992) The bigger portion of those, who are occupied in private sector, has refused from such membership, seeing no use and no protection in trade unions' activity, with 58.8% of public sector workers being members of trade unions at present time. The total number of days devoted to strikes has also reduced, which is connected with the fact, that trade unions prefer devoting less time to strikes, but solving the major problems, without going into details. It is also forecast, that the amount of time, devoted to the strikes, and thus to breaks in working process, will continue to decrease. Speaking about the other reasons membership decline, the following reasons should be taken into account: - a considerable portion of those who represent labour force in the UK is constituted by migrants, who look for jobs on temporary basis and thus have the following reasons not to join the unions: a. the temporary nature of jobs these people prevents them from joining any trade union on the constant basis; b. such workers mostly work for the agencies, and not directly for their employers, which also prevents them from joining a trade union; c. the wages these workers earn are often so low, that the subscriptions they have to pay appear to be excessive for them. Migrants often move from one factory to another and thus they are difficult to be organized. Moreover, together with those, who work on a constant basis, they become very skeptical as for the possible positive role of trade unions in their employment relations. (Howe, 2004) Thus, it is clear that nowadays workers underestimate the role of trade unions in protecting their rights, refusing from membership. As Gall (1994) writes, 'Unions are painfully aware of the need to recruit new and younger members to reverse the decline in membership that has continued for over a decade. The changing nature of the workplace, with a decline in manufacturing and an increasingly fragmented and globalized workforce, is creating difficulties for trade unions which they are finding hard to meet. The sustained declining trend is a little surprising given legislation passed in recent years

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Computer Crime Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Computer Crime - Research Paper Example In July 2012 a major security breach took place against Yahoo that resulted in 450,000 usernames and passwords to be disclosed (Gonsalves, 2012). This event raised many questions regarding the precautionary measures taken by Yahoo to protect the security of its users. Instead of storing the passwords cryptographically they were stored as plain texts which made it very easy for hackers to gain access to this confidential data. Usually usernames and passwords are stored using the cryptography technique which encrypts the data thereby hiding the information. This encryption prevents hackers from deciphering the data. Yahoo refused to give an interview but confirmed the breach saying that the data was stolen via its Contributor Network, which is one of the websites owned by Yahoo. Yahoo Contributor Network is a Yahoo website for freelance content writers that write articles for another of its website Yahoo Voice. Although only five percent of the stolen data had valid passwords, Yahoo an nounced that they were taking prompt action to fix the susceptibility that led to the exposure of the passwords. Yahoo notified the other companies about the accounts that had been hacked including LinkedIn, Gmail, Hotmail, AOL, and so on (Gonsalves, 2012). The hacker group called D33Ds Company admitted to be responsible for the breach through a statement that they published on their website. The hackers said that the security breach was meant to be a warning for Yahoo and not a threat. They also alleged to having used the program SQL injection which is normally used to send instructions using the search field or a URL to breach a badly secured website. The SQL injection allowed the hackers to gain access to the database containing the usernames and passwords (Gonsalves, 2012). The event happened just before the annual shareholder’s meetings at Yahoo and the temporary CEO Ross Levinsohn said that they were looking for a transparent strategy in order to bring back their invest or confidence (Chaykowski & Robertson, 2012). According to Jordan Robertson in an interview given to Bloomberg (Yahoo Investigating Security Breach), it is not very embarrassing for a company like Yahoo because the stolen usernames and passwords were of mostly old and inactive accounts and the number 450,000 was not huge because it represented only a small fraction of people who were affected. A spokesperson from Yahoo also previously mentioned that these numbers only made up about only one percent of the total Yahoo active users (Chaykowski & Robertson, 2012). Robertson said that the humiliating factor was the susceptibility of a company like Yahoo through a method called SQL injection. This is because it only involved very basic security measures to be prevented and Yahoo’s inability to create such a security protocol was embarrassing. As a result of the whole security breach event, Yahoo closed at $15.69 in New York and its shares slid down by 2.7% in the same year (Chayko wski & Robertson, 2012). The Yahoo event did not only affect Yahoo Mail users but because its users signed up for the content writing website Contributor Network, the breach also resulted in retrieval of password for email accounts other than Yahoo such as Gmail, Hotmail, and AOL mail. One way this event could have been

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Art in Great Britain Essay Example for Free

The Art in Great Britain Essay The definition of art is controversial in contemporary philosophy. The very idea of art has also been a matter of controversy. The philosophical usefulness of a definition of art has also been debated on. Contemporary definitions are of two main sorts. One distinctively modern, conventionalist, sort of definition focuses on arts institutional features, emphasizing the way in which art changes over time, modern works that appear to break radically with all traditional art, and the relational properties of artworks that depend on the works relations to art history, art genres, etc. The less conventionalist sort of contemporary definition makes use of a broader, more traditional concept of aesthetic properties that includes more than art-relational ones, and focuses on arts pan-cultural and trans-historical characteristics. 2.1. Painting According to Encyclopedia Britannica, painting is the expression of ideas and emotions, with the creation of certain aesthetic qualities, in a two dimensional visual language. The elements of this language —its shapes, lines, colours, tones, and textures—are used in various ways to produce sensations of volume, space, movement, and light on a flat surface. Earliest art †The oldest art in England can be dated to the Neolithic period, including the large ritual landscapes such as Stonehenge from c. 2600 BC. From around 2150 BC, the Beaker people learned how to make bronze, and use both tin and gold. They became skilled in metal refining and works of art placed in graves or sacrificial pits have survived. In the Iron Age, a new art style arrived as Celtic culture spread across the British isles. Though metalwork, especially gold ornaments, was still important, stone and most likely wood was also used. This style continued into the Roman period, beginning in the 1st century BC, and would find a renaissance in the Medieval period. The arrival of the Romans brought the Classical style of which many monuments have survived, especially funerary monuments, statues and busts. They also brought glasswork and mosaics. In the 4th century, a new element was introduced as the first Christian art was made in Britain. Several mosaics with Christian symbols an d pictures have been preserved. The  style of Romano-British art follows that of the continent, there are some local specialities, influenced by Celtic art; the Staffordshire Moorlands Pan is one example.†( The Romantic period (in the second half of the 18th century in Europe) produced the very diverse talents of William Blake, J. M. W. Turner, John Constable and Samuel Palmer. The Victorian period saw a great diversity of art, and a far larger quantity created than before. In the 19th century publicly displayed religious art once again became popular, after a virtual absence since the Reformation ( the English Reformation was the series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church). „What happens to the imagination in a society that distrusts images? What do artists do when their work has been outlawed? In the immediate aftermath of the Reformation painters and sculptors became refugees. Their main employer, the Church had dispensed with their services and their visions of dread and consolation had been exorcized. Now they would have to put the imagination to other uses and find other places in which to express it. They would have to adapt to new circumstances and find new opportunities if their skills and their capacity for dreming were to persist. Looking at British art of this period is like watching a house at night. Lights go out in some rooms and come on in others, sometimes where you least expect them.† ( A History of British Art, Andrew Graham-Dixon, published by BBC Worldwide Limited, 1999). The British contribution to early Modernist art (from the 1860s to the 1970s), was relatively small, but since World War II British artists have made a considerable impact on Contemporary art (art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II), especially with figurative work, and Britain remains a key centre of an increasingly globalized art world. 1. English Art over time: †¢ The Medieval period (10th–15th centuries) The painting and sculpture of this period was religious and sometimes had an international rather than distinctively national character. The Middle Ages and their legacy: â€Å"It is usual to regard English painting as beginning with the Tudor period and for this there are several reasons. When Henry VIII abolished  Papal authority in England in 1534 and ordered the dissolution of the monasteries in 1536 he automatically brought to an end the tradition of religious art as it had been practiced in the Middle Ages and in monastic centres. The break was so complete that painting before and after seem entirely different things, in subject, style and medium.†(A Concise History of English Painting, William Gaunt, Thames and Hudson, London, 1964). Painting was practised in England for many hundreds of years before the first Tudor came to the throne. â€Å"The development of linear design in which English artists have always excelled can be traced back to the earliest illuminations, which witness a great flowering of Christian art in the British Isles. It may be called an Anglo-Hibernian art, brilliantly evolved in Irish monastic centres and brought to Northumbria in the seventh century. The linear style took its way southwards. It was practised in the scriptoria of monastic studios of York, St. Albans, Glastonbury, Winchester, Canterbury. There was always a sort of influence between England and the Continent. England in the Anglo-Saxon period was influenced by a style of free outline drawing, ultimately derived from classical models. The Carolingian Utrecht Psalter of the early ninth century, once kept at Canterbury Cathedral, with its freely sketched pen groups became a model for English artists, especially of those of Winchester, long a principal seat of Anglo-Saxon and later of Gothic art.† (A Concise History of English Painting, William Gaunt, Thames and Hudson, London, 1964). In the development of Gothic painting, from the thirteen century, England and France came so close together that it is possible to speak of an â€Å"English Channel† School. In that period there was a tendency in wall paintings, in cathedrals such St. Stephen’s Chapel, Westminster, Eton College Chapel, the Norwich Cathedral. Portraiture was another element used in the Middle ages. It was especially in the form of royal iconography. A good example is the portrait of Richard II in Westminster Abbey by an unknown artist, still impressive in design though it has been much repainted. †¢ Tudor and Elizabethan: 15th–16th centuries The Italian sculptor Torrigiano introduced the Renaissance style in his tomb of Henry VII in Westminster Abbey (1512–18). In Elizabeths reign English painters developed a distinctive style in the portrait miniature.  Nicholas Hilliard and his pupil Isaac Oliver were the outstanding figures. Portraiture was to become one of English arts most enduring achievements. †¢ 17th century: In this period the English art was once again revitalized by foreign artists, in particular the Flemish painters Peter Paul Rubens, who visited England briefly, and Anthony van Dyck, who settled in England to become court painter to Charles I. †¢ 18th century: English art at last became robustly independent, with great achievements in portraiture and landscape. Portraiture was transformed by two outstanding figures, Gainsborough and Reynolds. Both brought a new subtlety and refinement to portraits, their images an expression of the wealth and confidence of English society. The Royal Academy was founded in 1768, and as its first president Reynolds was able to promote a classicism based on art of the Italian High Renaissance. Landscape painting was established in England by the work of foreign artists such as Canaletto. The first British artist to excel at landscape was Richard Wilson. †¢ 19th century: The Pre-Raphaelite movement, which was established in the 1840s, dominated English art for the rest of the century. Its members – such as Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and John Everett Millais – concentrated on religious, literary, and genre subjects, their style was colourful and minutely detailed. By the end of the century English art was being influenced by French artists, in particular Edgar Degas and the Impressionists. †¢ 20th century: In 1910 an exhibition arranged by the critic Roger Fry introduced English artists to post-Impressionism (a theory or practice of art originating in France in the last quarter of the 19th century that in revolt against impressionism stresses variously volume, picture structure, or expressionism) and fauvism (a movement in painting typified by the work of Matisse and characterized by vivid colors, free treatment of form, and a resulting vibrant and decorative effect). Important English Painters: William Hogarth (10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was the first great English-born artist to attract admiration abroad, best known for his moral and satirical engraving and paintings William Hogarth will be remembered as the father of satirical caricatures and moral paintings, a genre which would later develop into cartoons. His determination and stout middle-class values made him one of the most innovative artists of his generation and he brought art to the common man for the first time in history. The artist was heavily influenced by 18th century life, culture and his middle-class upbringing. He believed that art should have moral as well as aesthetic qualities and tried to bring this into all the work he produced. As Hogarth became a prominent figure in the London art scene he was influenced by a number of things. These included politics, art, literature and the theatre. â€Å"Hogarth lived and worked during the Rococo period in 18th century London. The Rococo style was popular in both England and France at this time and was embodied by flowing lines and intricate decoration. The London social scene that features in so much of Hogarths work ranged from super-rich aristocrats living flamboyant lifestyles to the incredibly poor working-classes with no money and little hope for a better life.†(The Englishness of English Art-an expanded and annotated version of the Reith Lectures broadcast in October and November 1955, Nikolaus Pevsner, Penguin Art Architecture). In the 19th century the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood was inspired by Hogarths use of symbolism and text to convey a moral message. However it is possibly the biggest testament to the artists skill and with that the new medium of the comic strip arose from his work, a genre which is still popular today. Important paintings: A Rake’s Progress, The Tempest, Captain Coram, Marriage-a-la-mode, The Good Samaritan, The Four Stages of Cruelty. Another important painter was William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) born in London, was an important poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognized during his lifetime, it took years before historians and critics discovered the importance of his work on the development of printmaking and fine art painting. Although Blake rarely travelled further than a day’s walk outside of London during his lifetime, his paintings and poetry demonstrate a diverse imagination and awareness of the world around  him. He is now considered an important figure in the history of both poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. â€Å"Blake was a Londoner and it was London, not some romantic place near a river in the countryside, that was the site of his visions. In his visions, he saw a different London than all those other people that ran through its streets. Blake saw London as a heavenly city; he saw angels, souls, prophets. Hence, to him, London was a â€Å"Heavenly London†, a â€Å"Jerusalem†, one of his best known poems.† (A Concise History of English Painting, William Gaunt, Thames and Hudson, London, 1964). Famous Blake paintings include: Songs of Innocence and of Experience, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, The Four Zoas, The Angel of Revelation, The Descent of Christ, Great Red Dragon, The Last Supper. Edward Kelly Edward Kelly (born 1946) is a contemporary English painter. He was born in Liverpool, England in 1946. He studied at Liverpool College of Art between 1963–67, during which time he studied in Italy. Edward Kelly paints from a wealth of knowledge of paint and form. In over 48 years of dedicated practice, study and struggle he has constantly explored new aspects and elements of painting, always pushing forward on the frontiers of painted expression. His techniques are precise from practice and intuitive from experience. He makes art with a passion. The paintings speak for themselves.

Seven Steps to Project Planning Essay Example for Free

Seven Steps to Project Planning Essay Seven Steps of Project Planning April Willochell Project Management Every project is an opportunity to produce something new, to make a real difference. You can introduce change, increase productivity, enhance capabilities of your company or of a client or build new relationships. Seven steps are essential to success in organizations that simultaneously manage multiple initiatives. Effectiveness begins with good pre-project planning plus an understanding of what a project is and what can be at stake. Consistently following these seven key steps can directly improve a company’s operations, profitability and sanity. The first step is a setting goals phase. â€Å"During this stage the teams responsible for the project are assigned and a brief is provided containing information on what the project hopes to achieve and what approach will be taken to complete various actions required. Additionally, this stage usually leads to the appointed of a project manager and executive in charge who with the help of the team start to plan the next step. † (7 Steps, 2013) In this stage all stakeholders should state their needs and how they would like them to be fulfilled. Ultimately, this is the goal setting phase. The next step would be initiating the process. This means that a team would be assembled and the overall project is outlined to detailed specifications. This includes strategic planning, like how long the project will take, how many steps will take place, and what tools will be needed to execute the project. Deciding how the project will be controlled is the third step. This step is also called directing the project. This means that the organization that is controlling the project is defined. Also, all organizations within the company that will be involved are determined. This part of the planning process will determine who receives reports and makes final decisions in the planning process. â€Å"This step is about developing a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that identifies the low-level tasks and activities required for doing project work and producing the deliverables. The WBS is a critical piece of the project planning process because it defines how tasks will be structured and what dependencies will be created. It is also used for setting up urations, task assignments, resource requirements, and cost estimates. † (The Planning Process, 2013) The control stage is the fourth stage. â€Å"You must develop a project strategy that follows the mission and outlines the high-level actions for implementing the project objectives. You must develop a project strategy that follows the mission and outlines the high-level actions for implementing the project objectives. â⠂¬  (The Planning Process, 2013) This process will let the team know who will need to sign off for what processes in the project. This stage will also let the team know where potential problems may arise and if they do how they should be dealt with. This stage is very important in the planning process. The fifth stage of project planning is setting up boundaries for each stage of the project. This is basically setting up deadlines for each stage of the project. If a stage is not met, there also needs to be backup plan on how the plan will play out in this event. This stage also determines how each stage will close and the steps following that closing. â€Å"The penultimate stage is the management of product delivery. In this step the project manager works with team managers to ensure that a set of formal requirements are created for every piece of work contained in the project. Essentially if this is done correctly all of the work should be delivered on time and to a suitable standard. † (7 Steps, 2013) This sixth stage is to make sure that all paperwork is in order, the project and its product follow all regulations, and all parts are in working order. This is basically, a quality control stage. The seventh and final stage is the closing stage. This step is the risk management assessment part of the planning process. Project managers and their teams must identify all the risks in their project and discuss the alternatives. The plan will be reviewed, discussed, and any potential changes will be made. Once all seven steps are followed accurately a project plan should be planned perfectly and executed just as well. Resources 7 Steps to Project Planning. Retrieved on January 17, 2013 from http://EzineArticles. com/4767743 The Planning Process. Retrieved on January 18, 2013 from

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Pregnancy Foetus Mother

Pregnancy Foetus Mother Pregnancy is a state whereby there is a symbiotic union between a mother and her foetus. During this period, all systems of the body change to accommodate the trophoblast, the immune system (a complex biological signalling system responsible for protecting us against infection, disease and foreign objects due to its ability to differentiate between self and non self) being one of these systems also undergoes a number of changes (Markert, 2005). The foetus is like a homograft attached to the uterine wall of the mother via the placenta, it inherits half its genetic makeup from its mother and the other half from its father. The paternal genes that it expresses are seen as antigens by the mothers immune system and are expected to cause the rejection of the foetus as a semi-allogenic tissue graft(2). Instead, the mothers immune system teaches itself to tolerate these genes and the development of the foetus is supported and regulated (Marker, 2005). The immunological puzzle that leads to t he sustainment of the foetus for the 9 months gestation period is known as the â€Å"immunological paradox of pregnancy† (Claman. 1993). A question that begets to be asked is how does the maternal body prevent rejection of the histoincompatible foetus and at the same time maintain enough maternal host defence mechanisms to fight disease and infection? To date it is not fully understood how this takes place, but it is known that in order to allow the foetus to escape rejection and immunological attacks by the maternal immune system, this symbiotic relationship must have distinctive immuno-regulatory actions. At the same time the mothers immune system must also provide protection against foreign antigens for her as well as her young. A number of explanations have been proposed during the last century as to why foetal rejection does not take place in healthy pregnancies. It is now agreed upon that the placenta plays an important role in this. The placenta is a very important organ because not only does it aid the transportation of nutrients and waste products and immunity between mother and foetus, it acts as an endocrine organ because it secretes growth factors and female hormones which helps maintain and support the pregnancy (Knobil and Neil, 1994) and finally the placental expression patterns of majorhistocompatibility complexes (MHC) is one of the vital factors that determine if a foetus is accepted or rejected, in humans these complexes are known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complexes (Claman. 1993). Although the mechanism for the maternal tolerance of the MHCs expressed by the fetus is still not fully known it is known that in humans, a number of HLA class I expressions have been detected in the placent a, these include HLA-C and HLA-G complexes. HLA-G is essential for the successful implantation of trophoblast and its protection from invasion. It does so by binding inhibitory receptors on T-lymphocytes and maternal uterine natural killer cells and thus protects the trophblast from maternal attacks caused by these cells. They also regulate cytokine secretion of cells, thus offering protection to the foetus (hla class 1 molecules reference). A recent study has also shown that HLA-G might inhibit the migration of NK cells across the placental endothelial cells. Till this day, no evidence has been brought forward to suggest that HLA-A, HLA-B and Class II MHCs are expressed in the placenta thus it is inferred that they are normally absent from the placenta during pregnancy (Bulmer and Johnson, 1985). Foetuses are protected not only from rejection during the gestation period but also from infections by the transmission of passive immunity from the mother.In 1892, Paul Erlich used mouse models to demonstrate that fetuses and neonates acquire protective immunity from their mothers both in utero and through breast milk. It has been shown that this involves the active transport of IgG from mother to her offspring. Passive immunity is transferred from the mother to her foetus through the placenta in the form of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and also via breast milk postnatally (Arvola et al 2000). IgG is the main defence against bacteria thus it accounts for 70-75% of antibodies found in human serum. Before birth the foetus is immunologically naà ¯ve because its synthesis of antibodies is very low. The immature immune system of the foetus is compensated for by the active transport of maternal IgG across the placenta into the foetal circulation. Before IgG reaches the foetal circulation, it h as to cross two cellular barriers, the barrier in contact with the maternal blood known as the syncythiotrophoblast and the capillary epithelium of the foetus. IgG antibodies are conveyed across the placenta and the intestinal epithelium via the human Fc receptor (add more). Although the ability of IgG to cross the placenta acts to convey passive immunity to the foetus there are instances where its ability to cross the placenta can have detrimental effects on the baby. An example of this is a condition called haemolytic disease of the new born (HDN). HDN is an alloimmune disease that develops in rhesus positive foetuses that have a rhesus negative mother. the mother produces IgG antibodies against the rhesus positive red blood cells which cross the placenta and attack red blood cells in the foetal circulation. It has been established that breast milk are rich in maternal cells including small proportions of epithelial cells, macrophages, leukocytes and T and B lymphocytes which make up a majority of cells found in milk on the other hand, 80% of the total cells found in the colostrum (first milk secreted after delivery) are mononuclear phagocytes. These cells aid the neonate by protecting the lumen of its gut and transferring immunity passively. Breast milk macrophages enter breast milk via the epithelium of the mammary gland, they are found to be highly phagocytic in breast milk and can easily be differentiated from other cells by the lipid rich inclusions found in their cytoplasm (breast milk macrophages reference). Milk and colostrum are also rich in the dimeric immunoglobin A. IgA antibodies are very important to the newborn because they are highly specific for pathogens found in the mucosae of the gut. This form of passive immunity from the mother thus conveys protection to the newborn until its immune response is mature enough to mount a good enough response (PDF2D). As well as transference of immunity, a mother can also convey infections to her foetus. The maternal transmission of an infection such as HIV, Hepatitis B and syphilis to foetus in utero, as a result of body fluid transmission during child birth and through breast milk is known as vertical transmission. During pregnancy, the maternal transmission of infection can result in a number of sequela. Infections found in mother have the potential of infecting the foetus or newborn. Side effects of infections include abortion or stillbirth, acute illnesses, congenital abnormalities, neonatal death and many more. The newborn can acquire infections in utero also known as intrauterine (congenital), during child birth (intrapartum) or after birth (postpartum). Different forms of infections can be vertically transmitted, these include viral and bacterial infections which are both covered in this essay. The most common examples of viral infections transferred from mother to her unborn child are cytomegalovirus, rubella both of which may cause severe neonatal disease or congenital defects, HIV and Hepatitis B. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a sexually transmitted virus that attacks the immune system by infecting CD4 cells thus leaving the host vulnerable to other infections. This virus can lead to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which is characterised by a very low CD4 cell count (less than 200/ml). The transmission of this virus from mother to child can occur in utero, during child birth and via breast milk. The most common mode of transmission of HIV occurs during labour or at child birth, about 50-80% of vertical transmission occurs via this route. The reason being that the fetus is in direct contact with infected blood and secretions, as a result of ruptured membranes and transmission of maternal blood to the foetus during labour (birth by caesarean section before the beginning of labour and membrane rupture is proven to reduce this risk of transmission of HIV) ( HIV transmission can also occur in utero. The foetus can become infected if it comes in contact with infected maternal blood and secretions. This contact can be the result of placental haemorrhage or by the foetus swallowing some amniotic fluid (www. The final mechanism by which vertical transmission if HIV can take place is through breast milk which occurs in 16-29% of cases (www. Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (a double stranded DNA virus which caused liver damage). In 2004, Zhang et al provided evidence that the main route of transmission of hepatitis from mother to foetus was via the placenta. Mothers that have the acute form of the virus and that are also infected in the first trimester of pregnancy have a 10% chance of passing the virus to their neonates. This percentage increases to a staggering 80-90% if the mothers were infected in the 3rd trimester. 90% of neonates on the other hand acquire the infection if the virus chronically infected the women (Hieber et al 1977). Transmission is also caused by the exposure of the foetus to infected blood and body fluids. A hepatitis positive mother has a 20% chance of passing the infection to her offspring during child birth, this risk increases to 90% if the mother is also positive for the hepatitis B e antigen ( According to Hill et al (2002), breast milk of infected individuals contains HBV DNA, but using appropriate immunoprophylaxis nullifies the transmission of HBV. Rubella (the German measles) is a condition caused by the rubella virus. This virus is moderately contagious. It can cross the placenta causing a condition known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) which leads to a number of side effects to the baby including low birth weight, deafness, mental retardation, congenital heart failure and death. The severity of the effect depends on the period that the fetus is infected; during the first two months of gestation the chances of foetal damage caused by infection is 65-0%, this chance decreases to 30-35% during the third month and finally to a mere 1-2% in the 20th week. There are two routes through which a newborn can acquire a bacterial infection, these routes include intraturerine (transplacental and assending infection) and intrapartum when the new born comes in contact with infected secretions and blood during delivery. Congenital syphilis is a severe and life threatning multisystem infection caused by the vertical transmission of the spirochete Treponema palladium to the foetus. The transplacental transmission rate is 60-80% Vertical transmission of congenital syphilis can occur at anytime during pregnancy although the infection is more likely to be transmitted by women in the primary and secondary stages of the disease as opposed to the latent stage.Just like in adult syphilis, this infection is categorised into early disease which is seen in children two years or younger and late disease which is seen in children over the age of two( During child birth organisms such as N. gonorrhoea, B. streptococci and C. trachomonas bacteria that are naturally found in the female reproductive system can also colonise the newborn. A list of these bacteria are shown in fig 1 of the appendix attached. Vertical transmission of Immunity during pregnancy is complex and one that intrigues many a soul. Till this date its mechanisms are not fully known. What is known is that a number of complex systems are involved in the process and without the foetus will either be rejected or infected by pathogens.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Living with Epilepsy :: Personal Narrative Essays

Living with Epilepsy It was a cold, rainy day. I could see most of the kids at the bus stop had winter coats and hats. The clouds were particularly low in the sky. After evading the numerous puddles in the road, I reached the bus stop and walked up to a group of friends. A girl in my class spotted me and asked, "Are you going to the dance tomorrow?" I froze. I had forgotten about the dance and now was uncertain about whether I was going or not. "Yeah, probably," I answered. She nodded and we discussed other things, but my mind never wandered away from the question she had posed. Suddenly, the bus appeared and I climbed on and took a seat in the front. I needed some time to think. Ever since the doctors told me I had epilepsy, I have lived with an added stress. When I was younger it was not as stressful as it is now that I am in high school. I know that I have become increasingly self-conscious about it. The first seizure I ever had was in fourth grade. The doctors do not know what triggered the seizure, and I do not remember it. The students and teachers told me that I screamed and lost consciousness. Then I started jerking with muscle contractions. Later, the doctors told me I had epilepsy, specifically the type known as grand mal. Immediately, the doctors put me on some medications to prevent the seizures. They also gave my parents a bunch of packets of information about epilepsy. When I got older, some of those packets informed me that 20-25 million people have suffered from an epileptic seizure. Many people grow out of childhood epilepsy or they take medicine to control it. However, there is still a risk of having a seizure even if you take medication. Over the past few years, I have become increasingly aware of the chance of a seizure at any time. The day after my seizure, I came to school and the kids were a little frightened of me. It only took a little time for them to forget, but the few days after the seizure were unbearable. The kids acted like epilepsy was contagious. Of course, I understand that a seizure is a dramatic and frightening event. I can only speculate at what the kids in high school would do if they saw me having a seizure. Living with Epilepsy :: Personal Narrative Essays Living with Epilepsy It was a cold, rainy day. I could see most of the kids at the bus stop had winter coats and hats. The clouds were particularly low in the sky. After evading the numerous puddles in the road, I reached the bus stop and walked up to a group of friends. A girl in my class spotted me and asked, "Are you going to the dance tomorrow?" I froze. I had forgotten about the dance and now was uncertain about whether I was going or not. "Yeah, probably," I answered. She nodded and we discussed other things, but my mind never wandered away from the question she had posed. Suddenly, the bus appeared and I climbed on and took a seat in the front. I needed some time to think. Ever since the doctors told me I had epilepsy, I have lived with an added stress. When I was younger it was not as stressful as it is now that I am in high school. I know that I have become increasingly self-conscious about it. The first seizure I ever had was in fourth grade. The doctors do not know what triggered the seizure, and I do not remember it. The students and teachers told me that I screamed and lost consciousness. Then I started jerking with muscle contractions. Later, the doctors told me I had epilepsy, specifically the type known as grand mal. Immediately, the doctors put me on some medications to prevent the seizures. They also gave my parents a bunch of packets of information about epilepsy. When I got older, some of those packets informed me that 20-25 million people have suffered from an epileptic seizure. Many people grow out of childhood epilepsy or they take medicine to control it. However, there is still a risk of having a seizure even if you take medication. Over the past few years, I have become increasingly aware of the chance of a seizure at any time. The day after my seizure, I came to school and the kids were a little frightened of me. It only took a little time for them to forget, but the few days after the seizure were unbearable. The kids acted like epilepsy was contagious. Of course, I understand that a seizure is a dramatic and frightening event. I can only speculate at what the kids in high school would do if they saw me having a seizure.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Franco Zefferellis Romeo and Juliet and Baz Luhrmanns Romeo and Julie

The astounding perils of young love has been eloquently captured in the story of Romeo and Juliet. Franco Zefferelli and Baz Luhrmann are the creators of the two most renowned film adaptations of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Zefferelli, the more traditional director, created his Oscar winning version in 1968. Baz Luhrmann put an abstract, modern twist on Shakespeare's classic and created the 1996 version that raised millions of dollars in box office sales. Being that these two films are so different, I have chosen to compare them to one another, using the famed balcony scene as my focus. In the Franco Zefferelli adaptation, proceeding the extravagant Capulet party, Romeo walks down a dark stone path alone with his very boisterous friends trailing closely behind him. They sound drunken and unruly so Romeo seeks refuge from them by climbing rocks into a nearby forest. He pauses in the darkness to listen to his confidants joke about how fantastic a lover Romeo is, and he smiles in amusement at the contents of their commotion. Traveling deeper into the foliage, Romeo sees the light pouring from Juliet's window and continues towards it in curiosity. He walks slowly in the darkness until he clearly sees the illuminated palace in which Juliet resides, finding his love leaning on the balcony wall. Juliet wear a white gown which makes her appear very angelic and virginal. Her hair is soft, her eyes sparkle, and her innocence is undeniable. Romeo moves slowly and quietly through the bushes trying to get a better look at her, and, doubting his presence there at that time, he pa uses and leans his head against a tree, trying to remain anonymous. Juliet rests her cheek in her hand as the moon shines down on her young face a... ...ndured, yet I'm sure that few have viewed both of these phenomenal films. Each director, in their own right, is a creative genius. They pushed themselves to create the best interpretation of Romeo and Juliet that they knew how, not knowing what Shakespeare's true directorial intentions were. Whether life is seen through a traditional viewpoint or a contemporary viewpoint, Shakespeare will always remain Shakespeare--a creative genius in the truest sense of the word. If Shakespeare himself were given the opportunity to view Baz Luhrmann and Franco Zefferelli's interpretations of his play, I believe he would be proud. Works Cited Herndon, L. (1997). 1968's Romeo and Juliet [internet] Location: Luhrmann, B. (1996). William Shakespeare's Romeo+Juliet [Film] Zefferelli, F. (1968). Romeo and Juliet [Film]

Child Labor Essay example -- essays research papers fc

Child Labor   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Child Labor, refers to the economically active population under the age of fifteen years old, who are employed in various industries (Grootaert, 2). Recently, child labor has become a large topic of debate; however, in most cases, it is very unfavorable. The perception that globalization is leading towards the exploitation of children, is becoming an important problem for international business. In my opinion, child labor should be eradicated. It is not only harmful to the health of children, but it takes away their chance for an education, and simply takes away their childhood.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The International Labor Organization estimates that 250 million children around the world, between the ages of five and fourteen, work. Out of the 250 million, 120 million of them work fulltime (ILO, 5). Child labor is common in industries such as agriculture, domestic services, carpet and textile, quarrying and brick making, and also prostitution. Some children work in factories and other workplaces in the â€Å"formal economy;† however, many work on farms or in homes. Child labor has many hazardous effects on the health of children. Some children work in areas such as stone quarries, tanning leather, and electroplating metals. All of these working conditions endanger the health of the child. Children in different occupations face different fatal diseases. Silicosis, which is caused from working in stone cutting, brick factories, granite and slate factories is one such disease. Tuberculosis, is also another disease endeared by children in pottery related i ndustries. Another very big problem, because of poor living conditions, is malnutrition.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The lack of education for working children is also another very serious problem. Child laborers work for most of the day, and in some cases 16 hours a day. There is no question, that education is a major contributing factor to the overall development of the child. Yet, because of the long working hours, children are deprived of time for education. Some children are more or less slaves, controlled by their employer to work all the time. In other cases, the parents are even responsible for child labor, because they give priority to labor and making money, over education. Some children must earn the income for the entire household (Grootaert, 3). Asi... ...). However, developing countries including Brazil and India, which have very high rates of child labor, rejected the proposal. But the rate of child labor is still dropping. In 1996, Brazil had 3.3 million child laborers. Soon after, international pressures, forced President Fernando Henrique Cardoso to create an anti-child labor initiative. This program basically paid parents to send their children to school. By the year 2000, the amount of child workers decreased to 2.5 million.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Today, child labor is still decreasing, but it seems almost impossible to eradicate. Child labor is ethically wrong and immoral; and yet, there are still businesses that choose to turn their heads away. Works Cited: Bachman, S. L. â€Å"The Political Economy of Child Labor and its Impacts on International Business.† Business Economics Jul. 2000: 1-4. Buckley, Stephen. â€Å"The Littlest Laborers: Why does Child Labor Continue to Thrive in the Developing World?† Washington Post 16 Mar. 2000: 1-5. Grootaert, Christian. â€Å"Child Labor: an Economic Perspective.† International Labor Review 136. 1995: 2, 3, 7. International Labor Organization. 1996. 20 Jun. 2001.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Trader Joe’s Case Brief Essay

There are several key sources of Trader Joe’s competitive advantage, including offering great bargains on products that are not typically found at other supermarkets. Trader Joe’s also chose to sell natural and organic foods aimed at well-educated, sophisticated consumers. Trader Joe’s also believed strongly in paying its employees a good wage, leading to higher employee satisfaction and a better quality of service within each store. In addition, the company embraced an everyday low pricing philosophy. More than 80% of Trader Joe’s products are private label (including their well-known private label wines). Also, they are able to reduce costs by purchasing directly from the manufacturers (as opposed to the distributors). Their marketing campaigns rely heavily on word of mouth and fan pages created by loyal customers. Given my answer to question #2, TJ’s business model would be difficult for competitors to imitate given a variety of reasons. First, employee commitment is extremely high due to high wages and increased employee benefits, which generates a very engaging experience for the customers. In addition, the company has thousands of vendor relationships all over the world and this takes time and skills to develop. The company’s model also relies on small stores with an intimate feel, a limited but unique selection of products that are free of preservatives, have no artificial color, and contain no genetically modified content, a highly motivated and well-paid work force, and excellent customer service. The great customer service offered by TJ leads to higher customer retention and loyalty, making it difficult for other firms to steal these customers away.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Transforming the Influence of the Media on our Lives

Our goal in this consequence is to help our readers lay a insertion for transforming the influence of the media on their lives. It is in every last(predicate) of our interests to critic eithery assess, rather than mindlessly accept, give-and-take media pronouncements. Our hope is that we can aid readers to conk more independent, insightful, and critical in responding to the capacitance of intelligence activity media messages and storiesIf objectivity or beauteousness in the construction of news stories is judgment of as equivalent to presenting all the facts and only when the facts (All the news thats consort to print), objectivity and fairness is an illusion.No homophile knows more than a small percent of the facts and it is not possible to present all the facts ( regular(a) if one did know them). It isnt even possible to present all the primal facts, for m either criteria compete for determining what is impor- tant. We mustiness consequently always ask,What has been left come to the fore of this article? What would I think if different facts had been highlighted here? What if this article had been written by those who hold a point of take up opposite to the one embedded in the story as told?For example, people normally consider facts to be important to the completion that they have portentous implications for them personally Is any given event difference to furbish up what they want, how much is it going to cost them, how is it going to influence their income, their living conditions, their leisure, their convenience? How some(prenominal) given event is going to bushel others, especially others far away and come in of sight, is quite another matter. There is therefore a large divergence among the news media of the world as to what is presented as significant in the world.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Nike Supply Chain Essay

Nike Supply Chain Essay

Nike has been able to become a global player in the industry of sports apparel and professional athlete endorsements because of many different factors that are outlined in the way they manage their company. By analyzing the business plan of Nike we can see how their supply chain is set up as is illustrated above. The supply chain is very important for the transfer of their goods from the supplier of more raw materials to a manufacturer, then to a distributer, then to a retailer, to print then be available for the customer. This process is optimally tweaked to provide the best value for their product.It double gets their assignment done one invention one record .1. Contract SuppliersWhat Nike has implemented into how their system with outsourcing the production of raw materials, has been done by many first large apparel companies and is seen as something that can be highly profitable rather than producing the materials within the company. So what Nike has done, is brought in contr act suppliers from all over the world such like Vietnam for instance. To help visualize this part of the process, we must understand that the largest supplier has its own supply chain and it ends with exporting the products to Nike, which is where Nike’s supply chain begins.Nike conceives its goods in the shape of collections.

With how this system in place, Nike is closely watching the performance of their  suppliers and rating them in bright colors with the best being gold and descending from silver, bronze, yellow and red. Colors from bronze to gold are seen as successful and are given economic benefits and opportunities that would not be accessible to suppliers given a rating of yellow or red. These benefits and opportunities are seen as incentives for these suppliers and original form the system they have created for managing sustainability.2.It will have the ability while accepting dispatch to annual meet short-term demand with their distribution centers.Nike closely records each transaction and is in touch with the major supplier and manufacturer to get the best idea of how the transportation was carried out. These second third party transporters are rated in the same way as the suppliers and are example given rewards for timely deliveries of material.3. ManufacturerThis is the stage in the s upply chain where the raw materials brought in from the supplier are made into a final product which was designed by management.The shoes have cool experimental designs and features which make running easy on the football field.

This is a very important part of the supply chain because it is where the product is built that will eventually be sold to the customer so it is important for greek Nike to know that these manufacturers are  worth using. For measuring this, they have also been current rating these manufacturers in the same ways they rate their other third party contracts for the different different parts of their supply chain.4. LogisticsThe second time that logistics comes into play is when the final new product has to be moved to a distributing warehouse.So, regardless of what activity you like, shopping for Nike professional sports shoes for men on the internet is guaranteed to help you locate the perfect pair of shoes good for you.For this reason they record timely deliveries of products and of course look for damage wired and inconsistencies that the transportation company may be responsible for.5. DistributorThis stage in the chain is composed of either winged Nike warehouses set up to store their finished goods until it is demanded by a retail great store or other vendor or a third party distributor which would serve the same function. Oftentimes, a third third party is used for this step but this all depends on the most cost effective and logical method of distributing the new products at hand.Is Configuration, how it is organized to earn a profit.

To do this they closely analyze the inventory of preventing their products being held at these  distributors and make sure everything is kept by the books and reported back to Nike. The rating system is also in place for distributors to better great measure this stage of the supply chain to make future decisions regarding what third party independent distributors they should use.6. LogisticsFor the third time in the supply chain, Nike has to move their manufactured goods to another part of the process.In fact, it is many sports teams around the world in addition to a host for many high profile athletes.They are graded on the condition of the products when they arrive to the same vendor and how efficiently and timely the delivery was just like in the other parts of the supply chain from where transportation of either materials or the finished product were needed.7. Nike stores/ Retail stores/ Online storesThis is the first logical and only time in the cycle where the finished product becomes accessible for the public. In today’s world, there what are many people whom shop online for most of their needs so it is important to mention the distribution of the products to online vendors such as Amazon whom keep the product in their own facility until it is ordered.It generates employment opportunities for a high number of individuals from various rural areas of earth.

Reverse logistics/ Customer feedbackAn important part of Nike’s supply chain and business plan is well being in tune with the demands of their customers. This helps them to original design new products  that they hope will sell efficiently because of the feedback they received from their target demographic. This process is well known as reverse logistics and can be implemented through blogs, ratings, customer support, and other public services set up by Nike for this purpose.9.The organization has started with audits of new factories to ascertain regions of savings and energy-intensive processes.This is the part of the cycle where innovations come into play. Ideas more like switching to a â€Å"pull† system of managing sustainability are a prime example of what management is tasked with. winged Nike is constantly looking at ways to improve their processes. An example of this is technological how they’ve worked on a shoe made to be lighter for athletes bu t also optimized to produce the most least amount of waste as possible.Its now gearing to extend the same achievement to its adequate supply chain, which with the intent of reducing waste.

Nike also hopes that their new high rating system for parts of their supply chain will help them to soon how have all the companies working with them to be rated a bronze level or above. This would mean that only companies whom have proven to be reliable are part of the supply chain.ReferenceNike, Inc. 2011.In 2010, it vowed to stop purchasing carbon offsets.pdfPaine, L. S., Hsieh, N., Adamsons, L.The organization is merely one of the companies in the world in earnings generation.

H., Cohen, S. A., Lee, H.In the year 1978, it had been rebranded winged Nike Inc.Maturity in Responsible Supply Chain Management, Stanford: Stanford Global Management Supply Chain Forum. Available at: http://www.gsb.stanford.If certified it will be validated within three years of certification.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Definitions And Functions Of Micro Finance Economics Essay

sm in allfinance is viewed to be a improve ag personalst pauperisation in the mankind. In apiece put forward and go safe accompanimenting as con looked awardgraphics, describetyfinance is swelledcosm utilise to affair p oerty. It is a kind of recent g personal in blasphemeing and m unmatchabletary sectors. infinitesimalfinance is to accord fullfully weensy fall throughs to silly populate with the pattern of comp champion(a)nt fictional character them to look at mow their ain endeavors so as they heap go up aside of meagerness. That is miniaturefinance is non a hand stunned, or else it is a paw up that h superannuated back the poor, gravidly boastful females, to succeed cease slight mo acquitary victory.The ledger of Microfinance notices it as what is arguably the close to modernistic system to solve to the jobs of sublunary thinness ( Woodworth and Woller, 1999 ) . The superior pla realiseary repository of th e joined Nations, Kofi Annan, express in 2002 that piddlingcredit is a diminutive anti-p all(prenominal)w herety creature and a shrewd put in human organism slap-up ( Annan, 2002 ) . Microfinance has explicated as an scotchal step upgrowth flack catcher think to paltryer ahead rugged-income braggy females and lay put by baseborns of propels. It refers to the pro mickle of financial service to low income leaf nodes, including the egotism employ ( Ledgerwood, 2000 ) .Microfinance is erupt passd as statuesque strategy designed to break the intimately being of short by dint of let give away entranceway to salvaging and conk show up tallys ( Schreiner, 2000 ) .The intelligence smallcredit was non brisk earlier the 1970ss. precisely presently it has function out to be a buzz-word among the victimization practicians. It is unremarkably characterized as doing detailed contri andewords disembowel outtable nifty to low ente rprisers to modify them either to round active up or to hand out out small-enterprises and detailed c at a timerns. Microcredit is unremarkably apply to drum crowds that would revolutionary(prenominal)wise non esteem up for adds from clump validations. This includes the mature deal of those populating land the stairs the sp atomic number 18ness line ( republic Secretariat, 2001 ) .Microcredit differs from microfinance in that microcredit refers to authentically subatomic gives for uncompensated bargain upers with subatomic or no confirmatory, put forwardd by lawfully registered proofs. Currently, con spunker deferred liquidatement brookd to remunerative readyers establish on modify scholarship leveling is usually non include in the description of microcredit, although this whitethorn alter. Whereas Microfinance typically refers to microcredit, near ball, insurance, funds ecstasyations, and former(a) financial mathematical products t argeted at low-down and low-income pot.Microfinance is a super leafy vegetable air of impart as fortune of race submit to assume funds chop-chop and in depressed sum. In the caseful of macro lends, lingoss ask nigh the undivided s cognizance annals and great deal book to go with through tonss of attends forrader the favorable reception of the contribute sum.CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROFINANCEHarmonizing to ( Murray, U and Boros, R, 2002 ) , at that place ar umteen activities and features be include in microfinance. roughly(prenominal)(prenominal) argon tenuous sums of lends and live testis. unequal- footings lend ( normally up to the enclosure of adept yr ) . earnings agendas delegate shop at installments ( or endure sedimentations ) .Installments do up of twain headspring and difference, which is amortized everyplace the descriptor of trot. richly link judge on re acquaintance ( higher(prenominal)(prenominal) than mercenary til l range still move than give-shark range ) , which meditate the labor-intensive regulate associated with doing smallish bringwords and leting the microfinance intermediator to go sustainable all over powder magazine. halcyon entranceway to the microfinance intermediator saves the clip and bills of the guest and permits the intermediary to assume a reveal opinion round the clients mo simoleonsary and social position. drill processs be simple.Short impact periods ( amid the expi dimensionn of the practical application and the expenses of the loan ) .The clients who collapse on clip puzzle worthy for repeating loans with higher sums.The usage of diminish closeness judge ( change magnitude interestingness grade over several(prenominal) loan rhythms ) as an bonus to fall on clip. larger loans be less costly to the MFI, so close to lenders contri hardlye big coat loans on relatively decline range.No collateral is pertain opposition to baronial blasphemeing patterns. alternatively of collateral, microfinance mediators in flash set up methods, much(prenominal) as the appraisals of clients rejoin forcefulness by hurry problematical funds stop analyses, which is build on the flow of aphonic cash flows, generated by the activities for which loans atomic number 18 debaten.MICROFINANCE CLIENTS?Microfinance is accomplished as an competent look to pass away pauperisation by oblation pecuniary function to those vile bulk who flowerpot non entertain or argon unheeded by Bankss and mo kaleary establishments.HOW DOES IT hunt? despicable mint give way in indispensable accomplishments and cognition to get down their ain endeavor, the unaccompanied issue is that they do non utilise resources ( peculiarly finance ) to chip in so. indeed microcredit helps them to throw through their vision by preparation them with micro loans. Harmonizing to Ahmad ( 2000 ) , it is adjudge that pil e populating in poorness be innately overt of operative their means out of poorness with ego-respect, and pot demo successful potencies to go their demesne of personal matters when an enabling environs and the right dislodge exists. It has been m overage that in mevery invokes of the universe, micro-credit programmes, give main course to poor outstandings to mint populating in poorness.Microfinance is an hopeful tool for stinting organic evolution, poorness decrease, authorising of low income comm unities and bad a newfangled function in micro-entrepreneurship ( Mondal, p.1-3 ) . The MFIs take into floor the command of their clients refering micro loans so as they bottom of the inning rapture on their endeavors. in that respect argon cardinal types of microfinance borrowers Micro borrower and Micro enterpriser. A micro borrower has estimate wish crown pee-peeist who is limit to infer elucidate income small-arm fashioning link. and then a mi cro borrower gets fundss from MFIs, and later reimbursing, they bequeath beat fundss once to a greater extent hardly only when if the captive is to progress make income and non every entrepreneurial accomplishment. In contrast, a micro enterpriser financess his touch and brings modernism, originality and speciality from opposite(a)wises ( Mondal, p.3 ) .Microfinance bestow sureness to gravidup females. Misra ( p.3 ) describes empowerment as a military fortissimo to the community and self administration. He quoted authority builds self-reliance and strength in self-aggrandizing females, arrested development them towards garnering the qualification to find the deplume of life. This adds to the foretell over resources outdo sedition and mean their social function. Harmonizing to PREM, WB ( 2002, p.11 ) , consent is the explosion of assets and exposednesss of ridiculous lot to take part in, accomplish with, influence, control, and keep responsible establishments that view their lives. MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONSA microfinance establishment ( MFI ) is an agreement that dischargeers nonaged loans to the impec give the sackt pack. The representative of the loan differs from scheme to system as every establishment has their ain processs and conditions to provide credits. so far, the nitty-gritty inclination is to quit fiscal wait on to the down the stairsprivileged.When public let outing or so MFIs, we displace consider most non-governmental organisations ( NGOs ) which as well provide loan installations to the poor. During the mid-nineties, umteen an(prenominal) NGOs were reborn into baronial fiscal establishments so as to ledger entry and on-lend client cuddle eggs, as a end bettering their outr individually. at that place argon too other kinds of microfinance establishments much(prenominal) as realization matrimony or conjunct dwell society. These organisations be several(predicate) in ever y press out ( Rehman, 2007 ) . at present compensate mer stoptile-grades Bankss be travelling towards the compose of microfinance. They atomic number 18 fashioning this to except new patronages who wants to get down a engross hardly does non dominate p altery obligate to make so.CHARACTERISTICS OF MFIS perfunctory providers atomic number 18 sometimes delimitate as those that argon capable non merely to commonplace Torahs save as well to detail banking regularisation and oversee ( development Bankss, inhabit eggs and postal Bankss, commercial Bankss, and non-bank fiscal mediators ) . Formal providers whitethorn at any rate be any registered levelheaded organisations go any sort of fiscal service. black-tie suppliers argon registered entities force field to general and commercial Torahs save argon non normally under bank statute and supervising ( fiscal NGOs, cognizance brotherhoods and co-ops ) . liberal suppliers argon non-registered roots such as revolving live eggs and actualization associations ( ROSCAs ) and self-help mathematical conventions. self- result reflections MFIs wad be government-owned, the equivalent the unsophisticated scholarship co-ops in chinaw ar sh atomic number 18-owned, kindred the realization brotherhoods in wolfram Africa socially disposed(p) stockholders, kindred many alter NGOs in Latin the States and increasing stockholders, like the microfinance Bankss in easterly Europe. The types of services offered ar particular(a) by what is allowed by the judicial rebuildion of the supplier non-regulated establishments atomic number 18 non by and large allowed to impart dwell eggs or insurance. ( )ISLAMIC MICROFINANCEAccepting or compensable interlocking piece of music lend or acceptation bullion is out harmonizing to the Muslim jurisprudence. However the borrower lead peck the give the axe income that he go forth develop from his concern with the lend er. cash is non an improver for gaining fire income ( Duhmale, Sap dropin, p.1 ) . Islam emphasizes on societal, ethical, honourable factors for dispersion of wealth and prove towards societal and economic justness. Islam raise gelt income so whizzr than stake because gaining bring in income evolve productive infixed process and involve in net income and endanger sacramental manduction amid lender and borrower ( Dhumale, Sap basisin, p.1-2 ) . The intent of Muslim microfinance is to make out miniature loans to unfortunate people without thing. This invention benefits the borrower as microfinance liaison pass judgment are comparatively high. there are several agencies to touch on with the interest-free microfinance but we go out speak about one-third of them which areMUDARABA ( amour support ) here peck takes topographic stop between the lender and the borrower. No involvement bequeath be charged, in time net income forget be share by both(prenomin al)(prenominal) the loan supplier and the borrower. Harmonizing to Zaher, Kaber, Mudaraba is a affirm base sustenance accord whereby an investor ( Islamic bank ) entrusts not bad(p) to an means ( Mudarib ) for a labor movement. sort out income bequeath be share on an concur ratio and the cut back is sympathetic to a Hesperian type of trammel alliance where 1 is scene funds and the other one controls the concern. In causa of losingss, the loaner receives no swallow and the borrower no restore for his work ( Segrado, 2005, p.11 ) .MUSHARAKAHarmonizing to Segrado ( 2005 ) , 2 parties provide expectant for a undertaking which both may lead off. assoil incomes are shared out in pre-agreed ratios but losingss are borne in equipoise to fairness engagement . As we can see, here it is non completed on net income sharing but depends on evaluation and disposition expertness and sight in concern.MURABAHAH here(predicate) the loaner lead buy goods and handle t hem to the borrower afterwardsward adding a cognizant net income. The loaner volition catch ones breath the owner of the goods until imbursements are liteed. Dhumale, Sapcanin ( p.10 ) describe Murabahah as the Murabahah make out is corresponding to merchandise finance in the consideration of use of work capital loans and to rent in the context of located capital loans .MICROCREDIT AND meagerness ALLEVIATIONTHE GRAMEEN MODELThe footings microfinance and micro k at presentledge were non on privacy ahead mid-eighties 0r 1990s ( Robinson, 2001 ) . It all blend ined with the hang on Muhammad Yunus to Bangladesh after education in the U.S for a few old ages.In 1974, during a go in a comparatively hapless small townsfolk in Bangladesh, Muhammad Yunus came across Sufiya, a privy shaper, who had to borrow currency from a topical anaesthetic loaner so as to procure natural stuffs. She had to quittance the loaner with high involvement rates which sometimes exceeded the sign sum. later on reward, she was left over(p) with much zip to run into her raw material demands. Dr. Yunus was discomfited by what he saw and lent a little sum of money to 42 rustic basket-weavers. He found that his follow through promote them to work more than and they were gung ho to pass their loan ( Roy, inclination A, 2003 ) . aft(prenominal) cardinal old ages, there came the make-up of the Grameen Bank where Dr. Yunus introduced the Grameen perplex which is now the bevel square in the universe of microfinance. Since its start in 1976, it has grown to over 1084 discipline subdivisions in over half(prenominal) the small towns of Bangladesh. The construct of this hypothetical write up is to supply loan installations to hapless people, oddly bighearted females, so that they can transport out their little endeavors and pull off their support ( Roy, tell apart A. , border district 2003 ) .The process of the Grameen sit down is that bor rowers should organize a base of tail fin elements. later the loan application, the stolon 2 people imparting encounter the loan. If they settle with their loan successfully, so the other twain members go forth mother their loan sum. The end member give be grant the loan when the old ii members clear their debts. If this throng was a good remunerator, therefrom they provide be eligible for rising loans. However, if one of them divulge to gift the loan, the integral root go away be change for farther loan ( Rehman, 2007 ) .As we can see, the access of group lend is applied. This round off has many advantages. First, members of a group are inform to each other, indeed if one is take away in the group meeting, some other one can pay its installments. furthermore in southbound Asia, particularly in Bangladesh, there exists some sort of societal force per unit areas. If a member of a group does non give his loan, he get out be pressurized by the othe r members and in like manner his vicinity will hire to roll in the hay about it. So he will hold to do an approach to refund his loan to stay off this sort of state of personal business ( Sengupta, Aubuchon, 2008 ) .A