Sunday, December 22, 2019
is associated with them having a feeling of well-being. Psychological Dependence relates to an emotional need for a drug or substance that has no underlying physical need. An example, of psychological dependence would a person who stops smoking, but recovers physically in a short time. For an example of psychological dependence, one would look at the emotional need for nicotine, which is much more difficult to overcome. In the psychological stage of drug addiction, the users continually think they need the nicotine to stay calm, even though there is no physical need (alleydog.com).However, when there is chronic exposure to a substance; physical dependence can manifest itself in the appearance of both physical and psychological symptoms. Addiction is more a behavioral disorder that may or may not also include physical dependence. Physical dependence differs from addiction because it is a physiological state and not a dysfunctional behavioral syndrome. Psychoactive drug is a substance that acts to alter mood, thought, or behavior and is used to manage neuropsychological illness. Psychoactive drug abuses are generally classified within three major categories. These categories are depressants, such as alcohol and opioids; stimulants, such as amphetamines and cocaine; and hallucinogens. A depressant is a chemical compound that manipulates neurotransmission levels, thereby reducing arousal or stimulation in various parts of the brain. Depressants are widely usedShow MoreRelatedDrug Addiction- Physical vs. Psychological1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTaylor Drugs and Drug Policy 28 April 2011 Drug AddictionÃ¢â¬âPhysical vs. Psychological Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Research shows that an individual progresses from using drugs/substances, to being addicted to a drug/substance. This relationship with drugs (either legal or illegal) is complex because specific patterns of progression vary greatly from person to person. 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Alcohol and drug addiction affects people of different ages with different backgrounds and ethnicities. There are many researches and studies regarding underlying reasons and roots of these issues. Just as many other addictions, these addictions have psychological, biological, and sociological roots to it. This paper will discuss research findings regarding the main poi nts, roots and underlying reasons of alcohol and drug addictionRead MoreIntroduction . Cannabis Is The Most Commonly Used Illegal1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescommonly used illegal drug that is used world wide with an estimation of 125-203 million users in 2009 (Degenhardt Hall 2012). Cannabis misuse causes adverse effects and leads to addiction if consumed continuously ( ). Substance abuse leads to health effects and also becomes expensive for governments hence the need to endeavour to try and sort out issues that affect it ( ). There is clear-cut evidence in the literature which illuminates the physiological aspects and psychological explanations of substanceRead MoreA critical analysis of the concept of addiction with reference to drug misuse1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesanalysing the meaning of the term addiction when used in relation to drug misuse, and assess its merits as a concept for defining drug related behaviour. The key factors will be considered as to why people use drugs o n a regular basis and how these factors impact the validity of the overall concept of addiction. Also, I will be looking at what related concepts, such as dependence , imply for our use of addiction as a term to describe regular drug use. The term Addiction is perhaps most commonlyRead MoreConceptualizing Addiction Paper1038 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Conceptualizing Addiction Paper Kristina Lamey May 25, 2015 BSHS/455 David Elkins Conceptualizing Addiction Paper The history of addiction goes back centuries, and unfortunately, there is still a long way to go for people to realize the effects of chemical substances do more harm than good. The difference between drug use and abuse relies heavily on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s dependence on the substance. The line between the differences is often very fine. Depending on other factors involvedRead MoreDrug Profile Paper1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDrug Profile Paper University of Phoenix PSY/425 March 22th, 2012 Drug Profile Paper This paper will illustrate several aspects of how drugs affect our lives. Addiction philosophies including the psychology and physiology will be explained in an attempt to describe how drugs affect our bodies both physically and mentally. Secondly, different drug categories types will be covered including: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens, and cannabis. Each of these categories has differentRead MoreAddiction: a Three Part Disease1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWright, M.A. English 1301-Composition M-W 1:30 pm Ã¢â¬â 2:50 pm Ricardo Ballinas Addiction: A Three Part Disease October 1st, 2012 Sue Wright Addiction: A Three Part Disease Addiction can be separated into three categories: mind (neurological), body (physical), and spirit (psychological). Within in this breakdown addiction can possibly be explained and properly understood. In order to better understand addiction as a disease as opposed to a moral dilemma it first must be broken down. FirstRead MoreEssay on Drug Addiction Treatment1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAddiction Drug Treatment Word count Ã¢â¬â date Ã¢â¬â 17/8/2010 Description: Addiction drug treatment is a treatment for the person who is having chronic or periodic dependence on the drug by repeated consumption of it. Keywords: drug addiction treatment, addiction drug treatment, addiction treatment drug rehab, drug addiction treatment program, drug addiction treatment centers, drug addiction treatment programs, drugRead MoreDrugs And Psychoactive Drugs925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPsychoactive drugs are chemicals that affect the nervous system. When a psychoactive drug is taken it can cause changes in mood, emotions, feelings and thoughts. These drugs can also change how a person perceives things and can alter the consciousness of that person (Plotnik Kouyoumdijian, 2014). Psychoactive drugs can be illicit or licit, illegal or legal. Both licit and illicit psychoactive drugs can cause affect a person. Some examples of licit psychoactive drugs are coffee, alcohol, and tobacco
Saturday, December 14, 2019
Nowadays the volume of data has grown massively due to the evolution of technology. Smartphones, social media, and the Internet of things are the most important factors in the occurrence of big data. The most challenging part is that the data is present in a various format and at the same time it is huge in size. We will write a custom essay sample on Big Data Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now They have exceeded a traditional machine processing capacity and conventional competing mechanisms which led to the use of distributed processing mechanisms and need to improve Infrastructural technologies which is the core of the Big Data ecosystem.IntroductionSince the beginning of computers, the people had used landline phones but now they have smartphones. Apart from that, they are also using bulky desktops for processing data, they were using floppies, hard disk and now they can store data in the cloud. Similarly nowadays even self-driving cars have come up and it is one of the Internet of things (IOT) examples. We can notice due to this enhancement of technology weÃ¢â¬â¢re generating a lot of data. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take the example of IOT, have imagined how much data is generated due to using the smart air conditioners, this device actually monitors the body temperature and the outside temperature and accordingly decides what should be the temperature of the room. So we can actually see that because of IOT we are generating a huge amount of data. Another example of smartphones, Every action even one video or image that is sent through any messenger app will generates data. List this data is not in a format that our relational database can handle and apart from that even the volume of data has also increased exponentially. We can define Big data as a collection of data sets vary large and complex that it is difficult to analyzing using conventional data processing applications or database system tools. How to cite Big Data Analysis, Papers
Friday, December 6, 2019
Making eBay work In 2006, there were over 200 million eBayers worldwide. For around 750,000 people, eBay (thhp://www. ebay. com/) was their primary source of income. A survivor of the dot. com bust of the late 1990s, eBay represents a new business model courtesy of the internet. Whatever statistics you choose-from most expensive item sold to number of auctions in any one day-the numbers amaze. Ã¢â¬Å"This is a whole new way of doing business,Ã¢â¬ says Meg Whitman, the CEO and President since 1998. Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re creating something that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist before. Ã¢â¬ eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s business model Value in eBay is created by providing a virtual worldwide market for buyers and sellers and collecting a tax on transactions as they happen. The business model of eBay relies on its customers being the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s product development team, sales-and marketing force, merchandising department and the security department. It is arguably the first web 2. 0 company. According to eBay managers, of key importance is listening to customers: keeping up with what they want to sell, buy and how they want to do it. If customers speak, eBay listens. Technology allows every move of every potential customer to be traced, yielding rich information. Conventional companies might spend big money on getting to know their customers and persuading them to provide feedback; for eBay such feedback is often free and offered without the need for enticement. Even so some of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s most effective ways of getting user input do not rely on the net and do not come free. eBay organises Voice of the Customer groups which involve flying in a new group of about 10 sellers and buyers from the country to its offices every few months to discuss the company in depth. Teleconferences are held for new features and policies, however small a change they involve. Even workshops and classes are held to teach people how to make the most of the site. Participants tend to double their selling activity on eBay after taking a class. Others run their own websites offering advice on how to sell on eBay. Rumours have it that buyers have devised computer programs that place bids in the last moment. Sellers that leave the site unable to compete any more are known to write blogs on what went wrong to help others. The company is governed from both outside and within. The eBay system has a source of automatic control in the form of buyers and sellers rating each other on each transaction, creating rules and norms. Both buyers and sellers build up reputations which are valuable, in turn encouraging further good behaviour in themselves and others. Sales of illegal products are dealt with by withdrawing what is on sale and invariably banning the seller. eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s management Meg WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s style and past have heavily influenced the management of eBay. When she joined the company in 1998, it was more of a collection of geeks, handpicked by the pony-tailed founder Pierre Omidyar, than a blue-chip, something which underpinned OmidyarÃ¢â¬â¢s recruitment of Meg. Meg, an ex-consultant, filled many of the senior management roles including the head of the US business, head of international operations and vice president of consumer marketing with consultants. The result: eBay has become data and metric driven. Ã¢â¬Å"If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t measure it, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t control itÃ¢â¬ , Meg says. Whereas in the early days you could touch and feel the way the organisation worked, its current size means it needs to be measured. Category managers, reminiscent MegÃ¢â¬â¢s days in Procter and Gamble, are expected to spend their days measuring and acting upon data within their fiefdom. However, unlike their counterparts in Procter and Gamble, category managers in eBay can only indirectly control their products. They have no stock to reorder once levels of toothpaste or washing-up liquid run low on the supermarket shelves. They provide tools to buy and sell more effectively: What they do is endlessly try to eke out small wins in their categories-say, a slight jump in scrap-metal listings or new bidders for comic books. To get there, they use marketing and merchandising schemes such as enhancing the presentation of their usersÃ¢â¬â¢ products and giving them tools to buy and sell better. Over and above this unusual existence, the work environment can be tough and ultra competitive, say ex-eBayers. Changes often come only after PowerPoint slides are exchanged and refined at a low level, eventually presented at a senior level and after the change has been approved in a sign-off procedure which includes every department. In time eBay has upgraded its ability to ensure the technology does not rule. Until the late 1990s, the site was plagued with outages, including one in 1999 which shut the site down for 22 hours courtesy of software problems and no backup systems. Former Gateway Inc. Chief Information Officer Maynard Webb, who joined as president of eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology unit, quickly took action to upgrade systems. Its use of technology is upgraded constantly. In 2005, Chris Corrado was appointed Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer. In eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s press release COO Maynard Webb said: Chris is one of the leading technology platform experts in the corporate world, and we are thrilled that he is joining us. It is testament to the tremendous reputation of the eBay technology organization that we were able to bring Chris to the team. Meg is a leader who buys into the company in more ways than one. Having auctioned some $35,000(28,000euros; ? 19,500) worth of furnishings in her ski condo in Colorado to understand the selling experience, she became a top seller among the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees and ensured that her learning from the experience was listened to by fellow top execs. Meg is also known for listening carefully to her employees and expects her managers to do the same. As the business is as much, if not more, its customers, any false move can cause revolts within the community that is eBay. Most of all, eBay tries to stay aware and flexible. Nearly all of its fastest-growing new categories emerged from registering seller activity in the area and quietly giving it a nudge at the right moment. For example, after noticing a few car sales, eBay created a separate site called eBay Motors in 1999, with special features such as vehicle inspections and shipping. Some four years later, eBay expects to gross some $1 billion worth of autos and parts, many of which are sold by professional dealers. The democratic underpinning of eBay, whilst easily embraced by customers, can, however, take some getting used too. New managers take time to understand the ethos, Ã¢â¬Å"Some of the terms you learn in business school-drive, force, commit-donÃ¢â¬â¢t apply,Ã¢â¬ says former PepsiCo Inc, exec William C. Cobb, now President eBay North America, with a background in restaurants and PepsiCo, Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re over here listening, adapting, enabling. Ã¢â¬ Competition and cooperation As the Internet has become a more competitive arena eBay has not stood still. In 2005 it bought Skype, the Internet telephony organisation (http://www. skype. com/), surrounded by much debate in the press as to the logic of the $2. 6bn deal. With Skype, eBay argues it can create an nparalleled e-commerce engine, pointing to the 2002 purchase of online payment system PayPal (http://www. paypal. com/) that spurred on the business at that time. All three benefit from so-called network affects-the more members, the more valuable the company-and eBay has to be a world leader in managing network effects. In 2006 it also an nounced a deal with Google. eBay is one of GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest advert customers. Google in turn is attracted to eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s Skype customers for click-to-call adverts. This deal was after eBay signed an advertising deal with Yahoo! Which made some think eBay was teaming up with Yahoo! against GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s dominance. But in the interconnected world of the Internet, defining competition and cooperation is a new game. eBay also formed a partnership between Baidu Inc. , a Chinese web portal bought by eBay in 2002, and eBay EachNet. Baidu promotes PayPal Beibao as the preferred payment method on Baidu whilst EachNet uses Baidu as its exclusive search provider. The development of a co-branded toolbar is set to cement the partnership. So whilst in the West Yahoo! and eBay are partnering against Google, in the East Yahoo! is a rival. Despite eBay being the Internet auction phenomenon, it does not do as well in the East as the West. It pulled out of Japan, is suffering in Taiwan and lags behind a rival in China. In Korea, GMarket, partly owned by Yahoo! , is more or less equal in size to eBayÃ¢â¬â¢s Internet Auction. GMarket offers less emphasis on open auctions than eBay, although eBay now does have eBay Express where new products from multiple sellers can be purchased in one transaction backed as ever by customer support including live chat. Innovative marketing that makes the experience of shopping fun for shoppers and helps sellers improve their performance is perhaps another way GMarket differentiates itself from eBay. GMarket has itself attracted imitators. Once a web 2. 0 company always a web 2. 0 company? Although the news did not produce much reaction when announced during an eBay Live! Session, in 2006 eBaay created eBayWiki (http://www. ebaywiki. com/), hosted by Jotspot, allowing people to contribute their knowledge of eBay to others, along with eBay blogs. But eBay has always been about community so perhaps so perhaps they will catch on in time. (Source: Johnson et al, (2010), Exploring Corporate Strategy, p128-130, Prentice Hall)
Monday, November 25, 2019
English Industrialization Throughout history, England has been a major power. At certain points in history, its government and economy have been very powerful and grand. Due to many factors, England was able to grow in power and become a predominant force in Europe. During the Industrialization of the early to mid-nineteenth century, England was able to achieve and maintain the role as the supreme industrialized power because of the characteristics of England.England was successful due to the trade it received and also due to the numerous factories and textiles located in England. Because England had a large amount of iron available, Factories and inventions were made. Using the natural resources, the factories, and inventions, countless products were made with better quality. Also, because the machines actually did the work, they factory owners did not have to pay as many laborers and also the job was done at a much quicker pace.English: The House of Commons in Session
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Warren court - Essay Example Reapportionment refers to the powers of the political establishment i.e. the legislative branch of the government to the voting districts being redrawn according to the census every ten years. The court, after a protracted process of decision making arrived at a conclusion after about one year after it was argued. It is believed that the court was led by Justice Brennan into holding that the issue was justiciable i.e. it can be put up for judicial review. The study will focus on the judgments during Warren court. It will examine the balance of powers between the judicial and legislative branches of government, and broadly deal with the powers of the judiciary of review of political actions. The study will take into account the judgments of the Warren court in general and explore how the judgments shaped the change from the Supreme Court's political question doctrine, which is understood to mean that a federal Court may refuse to rule in a case where either of the grounds; that the Constitution has provided for another branch of the federal government to decide the subject matter, that there are inadequate standards for the court to apply or that the Court feels it is prudent not to interfere. The Warren Court decisively overrode these guidelines, and dealt with cases in which most decisions that have shaped the U. S.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Is watchmen a good book for education - Essay Example Its setting is in the alternate United States history where these superheroes strongly emerge to assist the US win the Vietnam War during the 1940s and 1960s (Harvey, 1996, p. 66). The nuclear war is looming close by between the United States and the Soviet Union, with most of the costumed freelance vigilantes outlawed and the costumed superheroes are either serving the government or have retired. The story therefore mainly focuses on the protagonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ struggles and personal development. The sudden murder of a superhero under the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s sponsorship begins investigations which eventually pulls the protagonist from their retirement leading them into war to confront a discovered plot intended to start a nuclear war meant to destroy millions of innocent people. As we shall soon find out, the Ã¢â¬ËwatchmenÃ¢â¬â¢ is no doubt a book that should be used as an educational material because it covers many facets of the literally requirements. Although it was initially designed and written as a mere comic book to provide aesthetical satisfaction of its time, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have many rivals of its nature to match. The entire plot, setting, characters, the theme, figurative language, and science-art fiction interrelations are just but a few features of this book that eminently presents themselves even to a layman reader as masterfully structured pieces. In addition, the more perceptions of different categories of personalities are well integrated in the book to give the reader a high degree of determining and comprehending the ones which are more comprehensible than others. This book therefore acts as an individual ethic meter. The Ã¢â¬ËwatchmenÃ¢â¬â¢ is very appropriate to use as a literally educational books it cuts across many boundaries of human life in general. For example, its composition and art aspect can, to some extent be equated to the classical or even oriental literally works. Not only does it enumerate the comic
Monday, November 18, 2019
Enron - Essay Example Within about 5 years of the emergence of the Internet and the Web, electricity consumption linked to this new phenomenon had surged to 8 percent of total consumption. Naturally enough, this caught the eye of the prosperous energy trader down in Houston. How could Enron play in this exciting new game (Jorion 2003, p. 6) In order for a firm to have a reasonable chance of success in the realm of the Internet, it needed to be able to control its risks. Well, this was something that Enron was in a very good position to do. In fact, very few companies in the 1990s were as well positioned as Enron to play in this game (or so it seemed). "What Enron has been about for a long time," said Jeff Skilling, then Enron's chief operating officer, "has been making and restructuring markets. If you look at the present phenomenon, the Internet, it also comes into existing markets and dramatically overhauls them. That's something we started doing in the mid-1980s. The Internet just gives us the juice to extend more products across more markets more quickly (Jorion 2003, p. 6)." In particular, Enron got interested in the exotic-sounding world of broadband, which is a catch-all term for high-speed access to the Internet through the use of fiber-optic cable. Broadband is little more than a data pipeline of great bandwidth, or carrying capacity. (Or more precisely, bandwidth "determines the speed at which data can flow through computer and communications systems without interference (Jorion 2003, p. 6)." Even at the time-even amid all the Internet hype and hoopla-people knew that the nascent broadband/ bandwidth industry was a dicey proposition. "The market will not be for the faint of heart or the ill-prepared," one observer commented. "Success will require careful consideration of the appropriate market entry strategy. Organizations must ask the tough questions, such as 'what's my appetite for risk' (Jorion 2003, p. 6)" Well, in Enron's case, the answer was "big appetite." In the spring of 1999, Enron created a company called Enron Communications, Inc., that soon changed its name to Enron Broadband Services (EBS). It began selling a standardized bandwidth product, effectively turning the elusive concept of bandwidth into a commodity (Jorion 2003, p. 6). WHAT WENT WRONG For a while, and especially from a particular perspective, it worked. That perspective, of course, was the price of a share of Enron stock. People loved the idea of Enron and the Internet converging. Within 9 months-that is, the period between year-end 1999 and September 2000- Enron's stock price soared. In fact, it more than doubled-from $44 to $90 (Jorion 2003, p. 6-7). For a group of ambitious and self-impressed executives-especially those with heavy stock options-stock-price fever is something like heroin addiction. It goes from being a nice-to-have to the be-all and end-all. And over time, you need more and more of the stuff to get those good feelings. (In fact, when you do not get the stuff, you start feeling bad.) Management got accustomed to a high and rising stock price-and so, by the way, did Wall Street (Jorion 2003, p. 7). When stock-price fever sets in, lots of other temptations begin
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Drug Discovery and Development Processes INTRODUCTION The human body is a miracle but it is also extremely vulnerable. Many illnesses and disorders are still untreatable. Fortunately science is always evolving. It is unravelling more and more secrets about how our body works and which process is occurring in conditions of sickness or health. The challenge is to use our scientific knowledge to discover new, innovative drugs, a new hope for the patients all over the world. Drug Designing or Drug Discovery and Development is an inventive process of finding new medications based on understanding of the biological target. Vast majority of drugs are small molecules designed to bind, interact and modulate the activity of specific biological proteins. These proteins which may also be receptors bind to and interact with other molecules to perform the numerous functions required for the maintenance of life. In many illnesses, one or more proteins or receptors in the body are not working correctly. That is what the scientists try to detect. If they discover which proteins or receptors cause an illness then these same proteins become the target for the development of a new drug. Thus, the target is the naturally existing cellular or molecular structure involved in the pathology of interest that the drug-in-development is meant to act on. Drugs work by interacting with target molecules (receptors) in our bodies and altering their activities in a way that is benef icial to our health. In some cases, the effect of a drug is to stimulate the activity of its targets (an agonist) while in other cases the drug blocks the activity of its target (an antagonist). DRUG DISCOVERY PROGRAMME A drug discovery programme initiates because of a disease or a clinical condition for which a suitable medical product is not available. It is this unmet clinical need which is the underlying driving motivation for the project. Developing a drug from an original idea to the launch of the finished product is a very labor-intensive, time consuming and expensive procedure which can take over 14 years to complete. Target-based drug discovery starts with a thorough understanding of the disease mechanism and the role of enzymes, receptors or proteins within the disease pathology. The initial research would include experimental procedures to identify proteins responsible of the disease and generation a hypothesis that the inhibition or activation of those protein or pathway will result in a therapeutic effect in a disease state. The outcome is the selection of a target which may require further validation prior to progression into the lead discovery phase in order to justify a drug discovery effort. During lead discovery an intensive search ensues with the help of a technique called High Throughput Screening (HTS) to find a drug-like molecule or biological therapeutic, typically termed as a development candidate, that will progress into the preclinical, and if successful, into clinical development and ultimately be a marketed medicine. Drug discovery process from target identification and validation through to filing of a compound and the approximate timescale for these processes. FDA: Food and Drug Administration; IND: Investigational New Drug; NDA: New Drug Application. DRUG TARGETS One of the most important steps in developing a new drug is target identification and validation. A target is a broad term which can be applied to a range of biological entities such as proteins, genes and RNA. A drug target is a key molecule involved in a particular metabolic or signal transduction pathway that is specific to a disease condition or a specific disease. Knowing the cellular targets of drugs is crucial if the process of drug discovery is to be made more efficient. Identifying the full spectrum of targets associated with a bioactive small molecule can lead to faster optimization, understanding of off-target side effects and the ability to minimize possible toxicities early on in the process. It is vital to have as much evidence as possible to support a target of choice before investing more resources in the target. Good targets share several features: involvement in a crucial biological pathway; distinction from any previously known target; functionally and structurally characterized; and druggable. A Ã¢â¬ËdruggableÃ¢â¬â¢ target is accessible to the putative drug molecule and upon binding elicits a biological response which can be measured both in vitro and in vivo. It also needs to be efficacious, safe, meet clinical and commercial needs. When searching for novel drug targets, candidates can be assessed according to how many of these features they have, as well as participation in a biological process critical to the disease. Identification of the target is followed by its validation which a process of physiologically, pathologically and pharmacologically evaluating a biomolecule. It might be performed at the molecular, cellular or whole animal level. The potential drug target is then subject to high-throughput screening against a library of drug-like compounds or to rational drug designin g. However, the term Ã¢â¬Ëdrug targetÃ¢â¬â¢ itself has several limitations. The following points should be kept in mind: First, a drug is disease-dependent, that is, every target is involved in a spectrum of diseases. Second, most human diseases are rather complicated and involve a number of risk factors, so there clearly are many different targets with respect to a specific disease. Targeting a specific target could not conceivably cure a disease. Third, there are many drugs targets the same target and one drug may have more than one target. The relationship between a drug and its target is not one-to-one but many-to-one. According to whether there are drugs available, a drug target can be classified into two classes: established drug targets and potential drug targets. The former are those for which there a good scientific understanding, supported by a lengthy publication history regarding both how the target functions in normal physiology and how it is involved in human pathology. Furthermore, there are many drugs targeting this target. The latter are those biomolecules whose functions are not fully understood and which lack drugs targeting them. Potential targets suggest directions for complete new drug research. At present, the most frequent protein targets for which successful drugs have been developed include proteases, kinases, GPCRs and nuclear hormone receptors. GPCRs and enzymes represent the most important classes of proteins for drug discovery. According to the DrugBank database, there are 435 effect-mediating drug targets in human genome. These structures are targets of 989 unique drugs, through 2,242 drug-target interactions. The dataset shows that receptors make up the largest group of drug targets: 193 proteins (44%) of the human drug targets) are receptors, and 82 (19%) of these are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In overall dataset, ~36% of drug targets are GPCRs. Ligand-gated ion channels are second largest receptor target class followed by receptor tyrosine kinases at the third place. Enzymes are the second largest group of target proteins in the human genome, comprising 29% of all human drug targets. Hydrolases are the most common class of enzymatic drug targets, comprising 49% of all human enzyme drug targets followed by oxidoreductases and transferases comprising 27% and 19% respectively. In addition, the majority (78%) of the enzyme targets are soluble proteins and not membrane-associated proteins. E.g.; cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2, which belong to the oxidoreductase family are targeted by acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin).
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
We like to think that once a criminal is put behind bars that he or she no longer poses a threat to society. In The Fertile Soil of Jihad: Terrorism's Prison Connection, Patrick Dunleavy, a former official within the New York State Department of Correctional Services, shows the delusion behind this mindset. DunleavyÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis is that terrorists use the American prison system to recruit the disenfranchised to radical Islam. While many Americans may be oblivious to this practice, DunleavyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in Operation Hades, an investigation conducted by the State of New York to determine the extent of recruiting to Islamic extremism that took place within the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s prisons, makes him quite familiar with the process. Writing from experience, Dunleavy examines cases that show just how this recruitment takes place. Throughout the book, Dunleavy follows the story of Abdel Nasser Zaben. An immigrant and member of Hamas, in 1993 Zaben was arrested and sent to prison in New York State. Dunleavy finds that Ã¢â¬Å"convicts today are not isolated from societyÃ¢â¬ (p.100), Zaben being a prime example. Like others before and since, once within prison Zaben became a clerk for a prison imam. This expanded his influence, furthered the radicalization process, and put him in contact with other radicals outside of prison. The Fertile Soil of Jihad demonstrates that Dunleavy has a clear understanding of the prison system in America. It benefits the reader by showing the problems in this system (at least as far as its connection to terrorist recruitment goes) as characterized by ZabenÃ¢â¬â¢s experience. Perhaps the most glaring issue is that of prison imams. Dunleavy indicates that many of the imams in the employ of the New York State Department of Correctional Servi... ... Patrick DunleavyÃ¢â¬â¢s The Fertile Soil of Jihad endeavors to bring to light an often misunderstood or unrecognized problem. And in so much as it does that, it should be praised. However, his analysis of this issue is fraught with his own misunderstanding. Ultimately, the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s worth depends on what the reader wants to get out of it. If he or she seeks to understand the radicalization process that occurs in American prisons, then it is a good source. Yet, if the desired outcome is to understand Islam, jihad, or how prison radicalization can be addressed on a societal or cultural (rather than institutional) level, then it is inadequate. Whether America is at war with Islam or it is the other way around is never made clear. The book could be read either way. To truly address the problem, an understanding of Muslim culture and Islam is necessary: a radical notion indeed.
Monday, November 11, 2019
In effect this means getting the correct product to the customer in the right place at the right time. When talking about the customer it is important to distinguish between the customer in the street i.e. general public, and the customer, the trader, who is buying the goods to sell on at any level. The term logistics applies to all customers but we are applying the term to the trader for the benefit of this study. In recent years, focus upon logistics has become of paramount importance at all levels of trade and has become a major emphasis in large-scale retail, especially those with a high and fast turnover i.e. supermarkets. This is reflected in recent reports: Ã ¡Ã §A prime objective of any business should be constantly to seek ways of reducing the total costs of ownership while lowering their own costsÃ ¡KÃ ¡ Cost of ownership is the costs above those charged, for example, inventory carrying, warehousing and handling, ordering and quality inspection. To minimalise these costs, large-scale retailers have spent great deals of money upon centralized stock distribution and computerized inventory management systems, to try and gain a competitive market advantage. Centralized stock distribution involves using one as opposed to many warehouses to distribute stock for more efficient transportation. Inventory management systems automate many of the tasks involved in the control of stock and reordering. Without effective distribution and effective inventory management systems, other activities and functions carried out within the company may at best, fail to be optimized and, at worst, be rendered a waist of time if time. Therefore no money and (or) time saved in the long term. Leaders of these management systems include the likes of J. Sinsbury, Tesco, Asda, Iceland and Safeway, the case study I shall discuss in this piece of coursework. Safeway has a sales base ordering inventory management system, known as Stock Management III (SMIII), introduced in 1992/3. This was fully implemented to centrally distribute many of their product ranges, including; grocery, beers, wines and spirits and non-food department items. SMIIIÃ ¡s aim was to improve the accuracy of stock ordered in the stores, reducing the number of out of stock produce and therefor creating sales maximization. Moreover reducing wastage, reducing backstocks and creating a consistency in merchandising practices. SMIII uses data collected in each store to work out the sales forecast for each product using the store inventory. It then converts these quantities for ordering. These processes rely on data input for accuracy. There are six key concepts involved in this process. Firstly, the sales forecast. Line by line information on sales is built up at the checkout. A forecast of how much more stock is likely to be required is then calculated for future ordering periods. The demand is calculated using specific parameters for each line. The system must take into account: how much stock the store already has; the space allocated for each product; the code life of products (when they become out-of-date); outstanding deliveries; sales opportunities (promotions etc.) and current business policies. The system will then calculate how much stock is needed for sales and the amount needed to fill the shelves. Case Rounding rules are needed to convert the two figures, that of sales and to fill the shelf, for ordering. This is quite simple. The system will always order enough stock to fulfil the sales. It then decides according to the amount of shelf space, whether to round up or down to the nearest case to fill the shelves. It must be noted that the accuracy of the orders generated by the system is only as good as the data input. Data is obtained from a number of sources, therefor it relies upon each department or division getting its part of the process correct. The departments are responsible for entering product and item movement information into SMIII and processing stock as follows: Trading: ranging, space allocation, units per outer (UPO), data integrity. Supply chain: supply to depot, optimum lead times, data integrity. Distribution: delivery of right stock to store at right time. Store: replenishing shelves, scanning, accurate bookstocks. If any one of these items is omitted then the process will fail. These above activities affect the inventory and range, the two key aspects of SMIII. The system relies on accurate inventory data. Most item movement is updated automatically; deliveries through the companies central distribution system and sales captured by scanning at the checkouts. The store though is required to inform SMIII of any stock that enters or leaves the store through other channels. For example: spoilage; inter-store transfers; inter-departmental transfers (e.g. purchases for the staff restaurant); cross-picks (stock delivered but not ordered and vice versa); quality control (damaged stock that is not offered for sale). Moreover stores take a bookstock check.. This is where a check is undertaken for any product out of stock, or where stock levels are exceptionally high or low. If the bookstock is inaccurate, the system is informed, improving the accuracy of the next order. The range refers to the actual range of products the store holds. For instance, a smaller in-town supermarket will not supply the array of products that an out-of-town hypermarket will stock. Stocking plans are determined by the trading division and are transmitted to the store where they are accepted into the store range. Stores are required to carry the full range of products within their plan size. This is an important factor because it shows that stores are not allowed to delete products from the range. They are however allowed to change the space allocated to a product. SMIII calculates the optimum quantity of stock required to cover expected sales, safety stock levels (in cases where sales outstrip forecast) and stock levels required to maintain shelf presentation standards. In the case of groceries and long life products if accurate Ã¢â¬Ëfill and faceÃ ¡ information is not correctly input into the system by the store, shelf presentation may be affected and, moreover, out of stocks or high back-stocks may occur. Through these factors the, sales forecast is achieved. Inaccurate sales forecasts will result in incorrect orders being generated. This could result in out of stocks, excessive back-stocks and/or unnecessary wastage. The above factors must, in tern be undertaken accurately. To achieve this the store must enforce a number of disciplines throughout, from stockroom level i.e. tidy, with stock in correct place to maximize stock level efficiency. Through to daily checks for out-of-date goods, and ensuring shelf space is allotted correctly and displays are correct. A mid-morning inspection of a Safeway supermarket has been undertaken. There were a number of factors that can be seen as unsatisfactory from the stores point of view. I shall undertake to identify theses and solve them with minimum disruption to the store. There were a number of problems with the produce department. Firstly presentation was poor in a number of the commodity groups such as root vegetables and loose apples. If the display does not look good or is not up to a reasonable standard, this can affect the customerÃ ¡s discussion to buy, this could affect forecasting levels especially if it occurred on more than one occasion. If the produce looks bad on a number of occasions it could affect the customers decision to shop at the store in the long term. Moreover, If the displays are not full this may jeopardize the SMIIIÃ ¡s calculation of quantities reordered as it runs on the assumption that the shelves are always optimally filled. Therefore sales cannot be maximized as the space allocation is not being followed. Finally it can be seen that if the display is bad this could mean that some of the produce is being caused damage unnecessarily. Creating wastage and again potentially affecting the customers decision to buy. This needs to be sorted out quickly and efficiently, although not at a busy time, as from experience it can be off-putting trying to shop when people are filling the shelves. Moreover it must be noted that blame should not necessarily be rested upon anyone due to it being a mid-morning inspection on a Friday; a popular day for the weekly shop, the morning probably being the busiest time especially just after the school run. It is quite possible and probable that the poor display is due to the morning rush of customers. There was only one item out of stock, cauliflower due to a delivery shortage at the depot. Obviously nothing can be done about this at store level. But this information needs to be input into the SMIII to keep the store inventory updated so that this will be taken into account when forecasting. This reflects well on the produce department as the whole range other than this is shown giving people the most possible choice. There are wider implications for an out of stock item in a situation where there are two competing supermarkets. If a different item on someoneÃ ¡s shopping list is out of stock each week, it may be a factor in persuading them to shop elsewhere. The produce delivery was being worked and the shelves were in the process of being stocked. Although this may cause shoppers some inconvenience it shows that the department is keeping the stock rolling, maximizing space used in line with the SMIII Ã¢â¬ËthinkingÃ ¡. Deliveries though should ideally arive and be sorted before opening to minimise inconvenience for both the shopper and staff, as it is easier to attend to the task in an empty shop. Product quality was generally good, although a number of grapefruit, which were below standard, were now being removed. These grapefruit must then be counted and entered into the system to update the inventory for forecasting. It can be seen as good that the bad fruit were being removed, but bad stock must always be removed as soon as possible as customers will notice and may be put off buying. In a wider aspect though, perhaps stockholding levels should be looked at as they may have been in the store too long due to excess stock. This could also be damage through bad storage or transportation, which would need looking into if it recurred continuously. Overall it can be seen that bad stock, shortages and displays should be checked regularly and sorted out as soon as possible. People look at these factors when making buying decisions. This is concerned with relationship marketing where there should be a twin focus on total quality and service as a source of customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction ensures better customer retention and therefor greater profitability. The customer can be put off by too many staff filling shelves as it can distract from the pleasure of being able to browse whilst shopping. Therefor a balance must be found. The forecasting potential was good in the produce section as long as out of stock and wastage was entered into the SMIII system. Otherwise stockholding levels could be affected especially with the non-full lines. Moreover the presentation must be kept to a high standard as this may affect peoples opinion of the shop and therefore customer loyalty. The grocery department had three main problem areas. The promotional point of sale was missing from an on-shelf promotion on the tea/coffee section. This is a major problem as it would have a great affect on the forecasting. The store would expect to sell more of this product through the promotion, and therefor have ordered in more to compensate. Sales would not reflect the expected response to the promotion, as people would be unaware of it. This needs to be rectified as soon as possible and the system notified as the anticipated extra demand would not be apparent. This would affect forecasting and therefore future orders; potentially causing a shortage once the promotion was displayed. Loose stock was stacked behind other adjacent products on the soup section and appeared to have been there for several weeks. This reflects bad organization. Stock may not be noticed by the customer and space allocation disrupted. Space for the stock is allocated so that the system can accurately forecast the quantity of goods required to both fill the shelf and for sales. Using the space incorrectly can affect stockholding levels due to the amount predicted to be on the shelves and in storage. Although actual recording of sales will not be affected, it must be noted that sales could be, if the product namely soup couldnÃ ¡t be found. This needs to be sorted out immediately, and could possibly reflect a lack of motivation in store, as the shelves were not stacked correctly. It also reflects badly on myself as acting manger, as this problem appeared to have been so for weeks. Store inspections must be held regularly to ensure this type of problem does not occur.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Coraline Reviewed by Sarah Have you ever wanted to read a book that keeps you on the edge of your seat and at the same time you will be scared of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going to happen next? Well if the answer is yes then Coraline is the right book for you. This wonderful book was written by Neil Gaiman and illustrated by Dave McKean. I chose this book because I had never read a good scary story in my entire life. This book is supernatural fiction. This story mainly takes place in another world that looks exactly the same as CoralineÃ¢â¬â¢s home. Although it looks the same, to Coraline it feels much different. The love and happiness from her real home is missing. This other world is not a bright and happy place like Coraline expected. It is gray and boring. In fact, not only is this unknown world dull and unhappy, it is also full of scary creatures. Coraline is very sad in this strange, horrible world. Although the the author did not give a detailed description of what Coraline looks like, I imagined that she was about my size, but thinner, with dark brown hair, beaming black eyes and a narrow face. I thought Coraline was a very brave girl. She showed her courage in the story when she went down into a dark cellar and found herself being chased by a frightening, button-eyed creation of the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ mother. I liked the fact that even though she was scared, Coraline never stopped trying. She believed in herself and knew that some day she was going to get out of this miserable place. The story begins with Coraline finding the door to another world. Ready for adventure she goes inside, and what she finds amazes her at first but after a while things start falling apart and everything turns into a total and complete nightmare. Her real parents are missing and she is trapped inside this other place. Coraline must find her parents and her way out before the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ mother changes her. During her adventure she finds many lost souls ... Free Essays on Coraline Free Essays on Coraline Coraline Reviewed by Sarah Have you ever wanted to read a book that keeps you on the edge of your seat and at the same time you will be scared of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going to happen next? Well if the answer is yes then Coraline is the right book for you. This wonderful book was written by Neil Gaiman and illustrated by Dave McKean. I chose this book because I had never read a good scary story in my entire life. This book is supernatural fiction. This story mainly takes place in another world that looks exactly the same as CoralineÃ¢â¬â¢s home. Although it looks the same, to Coraline it feels much different. The love and happiness from her real home is missing. This other world is not a bright and happy place like Coraline expected. It is gray and boring. In fact, not only is this unknown world dull and unhappy, it is also full of scary creatures. Coraline is very sad in this strange, horrible world. Although the the author did not give a detailed description of what Coraline looks like, I imagined that she was about my size, but thinner, with dark brown hair, beaming black eyes and a narrow face. I thought Coraline was a very brave girl. She showed her courage in the story when she went down into a dark cellar and found herself being chased by a frightening, button-eyed creation of the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ mother. I liked the fact that even though she was scared, Coraline never stopped trying. She believed in herself and knew that some day she was going to get out of this miserable place. The story begins with Coraline finding the door to another world. Ready for adventure she goes inside, and what she finds amazes her at first but after a while things start falling apart and everything turns into a total and complete nightmare. Her real parents are missing and she is trapped inside this other place. Coraline must find her parents and her way out before the Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ mother changes her. During her adventure she finds many lost souls ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Color Purple Essays - The Color Purple, Free Essays, Term Papers The Color Purple Gender Roles The Color Purple Gender roles play a very important role throughout the Color Purple. Each character in this book are very different from each other. They guide one another through life and help each other figure out who they really are. Sophia and Shug both influence Celie, who is skinny, weak, and dependent of others, and we see her role change throughout the novel. Celie who is weak and submissive strives to be like Shug. Shug's independence and self reliance has a major impact on Celie. Shug teaches Celie to be her own self, and start by introducing Celie to her sexuality although it is with a woman. I dont know nothin bout it, I say to Shug. I dont know much she say. (Walker 118) Shug and Celies relationship progressed, and she learned to stand up for herself as a woman. Over dinner, we watched Celie become an independent woman who stands up against Mr._________ who abuses her and forces her to be his slave. You a lowdown dog is what you is. Whats wrong, I say. Its time to leave you and enter into the Creation. And your dead body is just the welcome mat I need. (207) This is an example that clearly shows Celie has respect for herself, and symbolizes her growth as a human being. Sophia is a strong woman who is willing to sacrifice her life just to be treated equal. She fights hard for it, but is discriminated by Harpo and Mr.___________. She is forced to believe that men are superior, that women exist only to serve men, and have and take care of their children. Not only is Sophia taken advantage of, but Mr.___________ admits that he beats her only because she is a woman. (23) Sophia decides to leave Harpo in seek of a better life which is a big example of her battle for superiority of the female gender in the world.
Monday, November 4, 2019
A.Critically review the way in which the Management and employees have responded to the way in which Geotechnical Instruments Ltd has changed its working pract - Essay Example Other benefits are the healthy eating program and a healthcare plan which covers everything from dentistry and marriage guidance and an IT training suite. Even their canteen is equipped with a widescreen TV, subsidized lunches and a pool table! (Katbamna 2006) If we will notice, most of the changes mentioned in the case study are employee-oriented. This may have helped the employees to take the changes more lightly. Having a new management may cause problems like high stress, misdirected energy, conflict and resistance from the current management and the workforce of a company or organization. But in the case of Geotechnical Instruments Ltd., more changes are focused on the employees. That is a major factor by which the employees are highly motivated, causing them to respond positively to the new regime and to accept the changes implemented by the said management. Moreover, Draper was awarded Ã¢â¬Å"Best BossÃ¢â¬ for 2006 by Working Families, a work/life balance organization. (Katbamna 2006) That may have strengthened the trust and the respect of the management and of the employees to him. Also he has been with the company for twenty years and that means that people there know him already. That, somehow lessened the Ã¢â¬Å"shock of the new and unknownÃ¢â¬ , one of the possible sources of resistance to change. In an organizational culture, the leader should have a vision and steps on how to realize and uphold the practices of an organization. The charisma of the leader is his main characteristic. It is the ability to move others to trust him and become loyal to him. (School of Communication, Information and Library Studies) Paul HerseyÃ¢â¬â¢s and Kenneth BlanchardÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"life-cycleÃ¢â¬ theory, a situational leadership theory states that the style of the leader depends on the self-motivation of the subordinates. It says that Ã¢â¬Å"Relatively "immature" subordinates require autocratic leadership;
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Parameters of Ethical Decision Making - Assignment Example However, a difficult choice comes in the conflict between making a decision based on morals or based on values. In this paper , an analysis of John Rawls theory of Justice as fairness will be carried out, together with analysis of other approaches that are used for ethical decision making. Fairness as Justice contains two principles that according to John Rawls, should always work as a unit and not individually in order to achieve their purpose. These include the liberty principle and the equality principle. The fair equality principle and the difference principle are part of the equality principle. The liberty principle sets the human being as the basic minimum standard for the fair and just institution. The equality principle acknowledges the difference in human being and it places that as an advantage to all. This means that the advantages are present to all and a veil of ignorance exits in front of the advantage putting everyone in the original position. Other ethical decision making approaches include utilitarian, universalism, moral rights and cost-benefit approach (Brooks and Dunn, 2010). Ethical decision making according to the utilitarian approach suggests that any action taken should always be for the good to the majority. The two major contributors of this ethical decision making approach are John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. Utilitarianism is considered a consequentialist classical approach of normative ethics that places actions as right or wrong based on the overall good and happiness. Act utilitarianism also called direct utilitarianism isolates certain actions under specific conditions while Rule utilitarianism isolates specific rules under specific conditions (Fumerton and Jeske,2010). One non-consequencialist approach to ethical decision making is based on morality. An ethical decision is one that focuses on moral principles despite the consequences. A decision can therefore be deemed ethical if it is perceived the best approach at that
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Consumption Function - Essay Example In technical language, consumption is a function of (determined by) income. This relationship between consumption and income is termed as 'consumption function' or 'propensity to consume'. Keynes (1936) believes this relationship to be 'a fairly stable function'. At an empirical level, consumption function portrays a schedule of various amount of consumption expenditure corresponding to different levels of income. As can be seen in Table 1, when the consumer's income is $0, the consumer spends $60 either from his/her past savings. When the consumer's income is $100, the corresponding level of consumption is $150, which indicates that the consumer's income is inadequate to meet the expenditure. It is only when the consumer's income reaches $250 that the consumption equals income. Until this equilibrium point consumption exceeds income leading to negative saving, and beyond that point the consumer's income exceeds expenditure resulting in positive savings. In Figure 1, income is measured on the X axis and expenditure on the Y axis. The unity line C= Y, which is basically a 450 line, presents a scenario that consumption corresponds to income at all levels of income. The C curve is a non-linear consumption function based on the assumption that consumption increases by a decreasing amount. Its upward slope to the right indicates that consumption is an increasing function of Income. Types of consumption functions: Depending on the consumption pattern of a consumer, the actual functional form of the equation can be linear with a constant slope or curvilinear with a changing slope. 1. A linear consumption function beginning from the origin can be written as C = bY where C = Consumption expenditure, Y = Income and 'b' represents the fraction of income which is spent on consumption, and it represents the slope of the consumption function. 2. A linear consumption function beginning at an intercept can be written as: C = a + bY, where C represents consumption expenditure, Y is income, 'a' stands for the intercept and 'b' symbolizes the slope. The intercept 'a' measures the amount of consumption when income is zero. The value of intercept 'a' is positive, and it is conceptually referred to as 'autonomous consumption'. The term 'autonomous consumption' is used to explain the situation in which the consumer's consumption is unrelated to the level of income (Begg et al 1997). As presented in Table 1 as well as Figure 1, when consumer's income is zero, the consumption expenditure accounts for $60, which is described as 'autonomous consumption' since it is not related to the level of consumer's income. 3. A nonlinear consumption function beginning from the origin can be written as: C = bYn, where n is a positive constant
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
To the board of the Renaissance University Essay I am writing this recommendation letter on behalf of Adam Levine. AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s life revolves around his band and music. The experience and passion Adam holds are powerful qualities in his favor. He is a zealous music coach and musician. He helps his students and team on The Voice by inspiring them and pushing them to sing outside of their comfort zone and to explore different genres. He challenges young musicians and singers to grow as artists and helps them explore who they are as performers. Adam is young and talented himself, and because of that he communicates well with younger students. Adam Levine is a well-rounded, independent person. Not only is Adam famous for his musical talents he has branched out into television, starting from a comedic role on Saturday Night Live to his fulltime role as a judge on the reality show The Voice. Adam has struggled his whole life with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). He started a world-wide project known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Own It ProjectÃ¢â¬ , which is his way of encouraging young adults and adults to tell their story about how they deal with ADHD. Adam also is a big supporter of lesbian and gay rights (LGBT) and strongly believes it is something you are born with. His brother, Michael, is openly gay which the family has known about since Michael was two years old. Adam Levine has worked hard to gain confidence and overcome an in-born shyness he had since he was a little boy. His love of music, family, and friends has shaped him to be the man he is today. Adam now exhibits a personality so lively and outgoing that people are enamored by his entertaining qualities. In my eyes Adam has a very gentle personality. People are drawn to him, because he radiates warmth and a caring nature. Adam is the peacemaker on The Voice, always making an effort to find the good in the contestantÃ¢â¬â¢s performances, rather than being too critical of their mistakes. People sense Adams desire for a loving and spiritual environment. Adam may not have had strength when he was younger for the music business, but he has proved himself to be able to do anything he sets his mind to. Yours truly, ______________
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Analysis Of Story Of An Hour English Literature Essay Kate Chopin (1851-1904) did a story that gets into the readers mind and moods. Freedom is a pleasure that is extremely forbidden, and none should think about it in public. Despite its shortness, the storys every word has a truest sense of meaning and plays a role in making it complete. The protagonist in this story is Mrs. Mallard or Louise who has a problem with her heart. Her husband, Brently Mallard, passes on, and the news have to be delivered to her in one of the gentle most manners due to her fragile heart (Berkove 152). Louises sister, Josephine and Richards, a friend of Brently, delivers the news. Both Richard and Josephine are unsure of how to break the news to Louise considering her fragile heart. Louise breaks down in grief upon hearing the news and retreats into her bedroom to think of her newfound freedom in privacy. She prays for a long life so that she can savor the fruits of being free only to be called by her Josephine. After getting out, Brently Mallard opens the do or and gets in; Louise screams upon seeing her husband and passes on due to the enormous joy of getting and loosing freedom (Jamil 220). This essay illustrates the causes the alienation that the Louise feels during her married life. Louise feels alienated in her marriage. Her main source of alienation is culture-driven whereby women give in to the decision of man. In many marriages, the man is considered the head of the household. Their decision and action is usually final; thus, the woman feels like the second party that is very dependent on man. This makes a woman feel like she is chained to the other party or the husband by religious vows or society. The other source of alienation is religion especially Christianity. Most religions often put the man at the head. If something good comes from a family, the man is appraised but, if it is bad, the woman is reprimanded. Religion somehow represses the freedom of a woman. A man can get out and engage in illicit behavior while the wife is at home; being faithful and waiting. If she discovers, the woman is told to forgive but, if it is the woman who engaged in illicit behavior, the man could threaten death, divorce or anything. This uneven ground is the source of estr angement for most women like Louise who are in marriage or trying to respect and uphold the institution of marriage. In this story, the perception of status greatly affects the behavior of Louise. Although she is estranged in her marriage, she cannot express herself in public. She has to pretend to be grief-stricken and has to retreat into privacy to think about her newfound freedom. Status is a thing that is created and imposed by society against the will of man. Louise stays in her marriage because she fears how society will look at her. She cannot walk out on her marriage to be free because she innately considers society. She cannot say exclaim with joy upon receiving the news of her husbands death because this will be contrary to societys expectations. Josephine and Richard also try to do what society expects of them; delivering the news in the softest manner possible (Berkove 153). As Brently walks in, Richard tries to shield Louise from seeing her husband in order to protect her fragile heart fro getting a heart attack. All these characters try tot live by the status that has been set by soci ety and not by their own jurisdictions. In this story, Louise plays the role of loss of freedom in marriage. Josephine and Richard play the role of society in the story. They deliver news and somehow check if Louise has received the information and reacted in accordance to how society states. The presence of Richard and Josephine is a representation of society, and they force Louise to retreat into her bedroom to think about her newfound freedom. This implies that, to act against the expectation of society is a thing that can only be done in private. The metaphor Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦delicious breath of rain in the air, peddler crying his wares, clouds piled one above the otherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ refer to the taste of independence that comes with the death of a spouse (Jamil 217). This is very common in the popular culture since according to the wedding vows it is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦till death does us part. This implies that Louise is free! Relationship problems in Louises marriage make her wish for the taste of freedom. It is obvious that, in marriage, there has to be compromise, and the looser is always the wife. Loss of freedom in marriage is what makes everything to go wrong. However, society and family are ever on pronging into the marriage to see that the people stay married. This is what makes many people estranged because almost everyone wants the marriage to work contrary to personal wish. Louise somehow celebrates the death of her husband. Most people especially family could label this as opting for the wrong path. Death is not something that people wish for and enjoying the freedom that comes with the death of a spouse is seen as very wrong in society. The enjoyment reflects relationship problems that were in the marriage before one spouse died. Josephine and Richard act as representations of society. They try to protect Louise from reality that her husband is alive which is wrong. I sympathize with Louise because of the path she has chosen. Although she celebrates her loss, she should know that life without companionship is empty and hard. At times, ever person needs comfort, which is a tonic in the ever stressing life. Society and its representatives like religion and the institution of marriage is faulted in this story. Religion plays the role of keeper, and shapes values and norms. With the help of close family and friends, marriages are coerced to stay even when they are failing as people bid their time and wait for the death of their partner. In this story, the irony is that the gain and loss of freedom cause too much joy until the protagonist, Louise dies. There is a conflict in what Richard and Josephine believe in. In real life, they think that Louise will be so saddened by the news; and she may have a heart attack (Jamil 215). They fantasize the way she will weep, get into trauma at upon receiving the news. On the contrary, Louise finds happiness in the news. It is unreal that a woman will rejoice at the death of her husband and prays for a long life to enjoy her freedom. This fantasy does not happen in reality. If a spouse loose husband or wife, they are sad and life is never the same. It is also unreal that a man confirmed dead by two messages could be alive. This could be true but it has the least probability of occurring in real life. It is also unreal that the joy Louise has of seeing her husband is what causes her heart attack. Perhaps the sorrow (of being bound forever) sends her to the grave (Jamil 220). Nature and society makes women or girls to be victims. Their fate is usually dictated by society and nature. Everything in society seems to reinforce the weakness of women. They are bound to relationships, marriages that are strenuous just for the society to be satisfied. They have to go by what society wants or else they are ostracized. Education tries to free women but, men and society will always put them back in their place where they have to give in to societal demands. This is represented by the fact that Louise thinks freely in privacy. She has to mourn upon receiving the news of her husbands death. In addition, she knows that she will have to cry upon seeing her husbands body so that society can sympathize with her loss. This story does not effectively show the way men become victims of society. However, when they fail to provide their women with a good life (flashy car, beautiful home, bright and healthy children, advance their career). Whenever they fail to go into these expectations, they are labeled as failures by society. Men who are divorced are labeled as failures. Both men and women fear failed marriages and people like Mallard try to enforce their will to make everything in marriage to work. In so doing, the will of the woman is completely lost making her feel lost. The moral issues that arise in this story are; rejoicing in loss, freedom in death and the evilness of marriage. Louise rejoices the loss of her husband. Divorced people are not welcome in society, and through the death of a spouse, people accept you. This shows the wrongness of society. It does not want anyone to be free from its standards. It is evil to rejoice in the death of a person but in this case, Louise celebrates her newfound freedom thus indirectly rejoicing in the death of her husband.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Malvolio in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night The problem involving Malvolio in Twelfth Night has been known for a long time but still very difficult. The gist of it is this. A lot of modern readers or spectators feel that the way in which Malvolio is treated is extremely bad. We expect him to become the centre of humour; we know that in the business of comedy, a very puritanical and rather joyless figure is likely to receive comedic humiliation; but in this case the humiliation that Malvolio gets, seems protracted and harsh. The harshness of Malvolio's treatment seemed to also have a negative effect on the ending, his attitude seemed to cloud the joyful atmosphere. We could argue that Malvolio bought this mistreatment on himself and perhaps deserved it after his bad treatment of the other characters; In some way Malvolio thought that he had superiority over Feste and as a result treated him unsympathetically and intolerantly. He also put Feste down repeatedly. Malvolio was also a killjoy and during the play ...
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
As every year draws to an end, so the atmosphere of Christmas starts to fill the air. The 25th of December is a day that has caught the heart of most Christians and filled it with gratitude- for it is said Ã¢â¬â that it is the day that Jesus Christ was born. It is marked on calendars as a public holiday, but it is written on hearts as a celebration of the birth of our savior. It is the time when families and friends gather together, bearing gifts for one another and where feelings of love are evident and friendships are strong. But, what if Christmas is not what it appears to be? What if we just imagine it to be this great celebration of Jesus birth, but in reality Jesus Christ was not in Christmas at all? There is a snare inside this honeycomb we call Christmas. It lays dormant, unseen, it appears harmless, and when one partakes in it, it tastes sweet in the mouth but is really bitter in the spirit. The following essay will emphasis the pros and cons of what hides behind Christmas, and will explain the roots of the traditions, rituals and celebrations that people practice over Christmas. If Christmas is not the birth of Christ, then where did it come from and what does it mean? Allow me to show how and where it all started. The celebration of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s birth was not even a consideration until the third century. It was only about AD 350 when a Roman Catholic, Pope Julius I, decided to introduce the celebration of Christmas as the birth of Christ, and then the thought of honoring ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s birth materialized into a documented festival. Why would a Pope, the head of the Catholic Church, choose December the 25th to celebrate the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ? Scripture reveals that Christ was not even born in December, as shown In Luke 2:8 when the three shepherds saw the star signaling the place of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s birth they were Ã¢â¬Å"abiding in the field keeping watch of their sheep by nightÃ¢â¬ . If it had been December, they probably would not have been sleeping in the field because of the severity of the winters in Palestine at that particular time of year. Pope Julius I also knew that the transition of Paganism to Christendom was hard. He decided to find a compromise Ã¢â¬â a gray area. He knew that if only he could chisel away at the righteousness of the Christian faith, then he could bridge the gulf between Paganism and Christianity. So herein he found an answer. Pope Julius I strategically set ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday on the 25th of December so that the Babylonians would feel accepted as they worshipped the birth of their messiah, Tammuz. The Romans would feel able to participate for they too were worshipping Saturn, and the Egyptians would feel comfortable as they worshipped the rebirth of Mithra. This was the only way that Christians would not feel excluded from their surrounding community but be able to participate in the celebration and festivals. Were they right? Christmas traditions bear their roots in Babylon, as I will explain a little futher. As the Babylonians would worship and honor the son of the Babylonian Queen of heaven, Tammuz (the Babylonian Messiah) they used certain rituals, which later were adopted by the church and established as Christmas traditions. In Babylon their celebration was known as the winter solstice festival. It was recognized by the thrill of having parties, feasts, and the privilege of giving gifts to one another. Every family would cut down an evergreen tree Ã¢â¬â they would kill the tree and decorate it as a way of commemorating the premature death of Tammuz. The Catholic Church adopted this Pagan tradition of cutting trees as well as decorating them. This act being contrary to scripture, as described in Jeremiah 10:1-5, Ã¢â¬Å"Hear ye the word which the LORD speaketh unto you, O house of Israel: thus says the LORD, Learn not the way of the heathen, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the heathen are dismayed at them. For the customs of the people are vain: for one cutteth a tree out of the forest, the work of the hands of the workmen, with the axe. They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with hammers, that it move notÃ¢â¬ . One of the other traditions that were held during the Babylonian celebration was the burning of candles on the night before the celebrations began, in Catholicism one of the watermarks of Christmas is burning candles around the house on Christmas Eve. Babylon was not the only nation that contributed to the forming of Christmas and its traditions, but Rome also played a considerable part in this merge. The Romans used the 25th as a time to honor their agricultural god, Saturn. They called their holiday Saturnalia. The purpose of Saturnalia was to celebrate, and thank the godÃ¢â¬â¢s for the coming summer. Every year when the days shortened, Romans, had no way of knowing if the days were going to lengthen again. When the days lengthened in December they saw it as a sign of the end of winter Ã¢â¬â the mercy of Saturn, the god of agriculture. This lengthening would allow them to prepare for the planting season. They had decided to use the time to commemorate and celebrate the mercy of their god Ã¢â¬â thus festivities began. SaturnaliaÃ¢â¬â¢s practices such as dancing and singing naked in the streets became caroling and singing house to house on Christmas evening. Merrymaking and feasting, became the Christmas lunches and dinners practiced by so many Christian families each Christmas. The exchanging of good-luck gifts in Rome are the gifts we see under the Christmas trees today. Romans would deck their homes and doors with boughs of greenery and candles and today the Christmas practice is the decorating of our homes with lights, wreaths and mistletoe. The mistletoe was considered a sacred plant. The custom of kissing under the mistletoe began a ritual to bring fertility to the couple. Holly berries associated with Christmas cakes and also in the decorations were really thought of as the food of the gods. In northern Europe the pagans celebrated their own winter solstice, which they called Yule. The word Yule means Ã¢â¬Å"wheel,Ã¢â¬ which is a pagan symbol for the sun. Yule was symbolic for Mithras (the sun godÃ¢â¬â¢s) birth, which was believed to be on the shortest day of the year. The thought was as Mithras grew so the days because longer, and his ability to warm them became stronger. In all hopes to encourage Mithras to reappear the following year, it was customary to burn Yule logs to represent the warmth that the sun gives. In modern day Europe they still burn logs on the fire. It was also traditional to light candles to signify the light that the sun produces. The question that looms over this essay is, Ã¢â¬Å"Is Christmas a truly Pagan Festival? I will say a definite yes! It is clear, that because Christmas has been a worldwide tradition for so long but the clarity of its roots have long been forgotten The very thought of the celebration of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s birth was not an idea that originated from any form of scriptural background at all, but it materialized from a Pope seeking to dilute the pureness of the Christian faith with Pagan trad itions. This is a pure compromise Ã¢â¬â a huge compromise! I have shown the heresy of Christmas and the detachment that Christians should have from it. Anything that tries to reduce the magnitude, r detract from the holiness of Christ, cannot be from the spirit of Christ and therefore it must be the spirit of the antichrist. If something is held up by the pillars Paganism, supported by the beams of the spirit of antichrist, then it cannot be for Christians to partake in. The scripture in Jeremiah 7:17-20 says Ã¢â¬Å"Do you not see what they do in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem? The children gather wood, the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s fondle the fire, and the woman knead dough, to make cakes for the queen of heaven; and they pour out drink offerings to other gods that they may provoke me to anger. Do they provoke to anger? Ã¢â¬ says the Lord. Ã¢â¬Å"Do they not provoke themselves, to the shame of their own facesÃ¢â¬ ? The refusal of Christians to recognize the importance of relinquishing demonic association is a powerful indicator that the Christian world has gone astray, and forsaken the truth that once burned in the hearts of men. The Lord says, Ã¢â¬Å" My spirit will not always strive with a manÃ¢â¬ . We should not fight God, but rather be quick to submit to his word lest we do not see ourselves start to fall away. We must be careful that by taking part in Christmas we are not paying tribute the false gods that birthed this tradition.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
5 Secrets to a Successful Collaboration with a Designer 5 Secrets to a Successful Collaboration with a Designer Kathy Strahs is the award-winning author of The Lemonade Stand Cookbook, and the founder of Burnt Cheese Press. Her work has been featured on Oprah.com, TODAY.com, and numerous national publications. She lives with her husband and their two children in Silicon Valley. In this article, she sharesÃ the five top reasons why her recent collaboration with a book designer wentÃ above and beyond her expectations in getting her book just right.Even before they peruse the content itself, people first notice and compliment how The Lemonade Stand Cookbook looks. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s bright, bold, and engaging throughout - everything I hoped it would be when I first embarked on the project. My goal for this book Ã - the third IÃ¢â¬â¢ve written, and the second IÃ¢â¬â¢ve published under Burnt Cheese Press - was to inspire and empower kids to start cooking, get crafty, and become entrepreneurs. I knew that the cover and interior design were the most important means of conveying these themes to readers, and it would take a designer with a special skill set to get them just right. "The cover is the most important means of conveying the theme of my book to readers." @KathyStrahs I feel extremely fortunate to have found Paula Riley through Reedsy, not only for her enviable talent but also for her initiative, commitment, work ethic, and overall personability. Paula and I were very successful in our collaboration on The Lemonade Stand Cookbook, and now that the project is complete IÃ¢â¬â¢ve had a chance to reflect on what I believe made it work so well. Arguably, PaulaÃ¢â¬â¢s most significant above-and-beyond initiative was her recommendation to hire an illustrator. IÃ¢â¬â¢d initially considered taking step-by-step photos for each of the 44 lemonade stand recipes and crafts in the book, but time constraints simply werenÃ¢â¬â¢t going to allow it (I also wear the photographer hat for my books, and I was completely out of bandwidth). Hiring an illustrator would take our recipe and craft pages to the next level, but it also would add a layer of complexity for PaulaÃ¢â¬â¢s role, in terms of art direction, coordination, and layout. Like I said before, she was committed to giving her best to this project. Meshing perfectly with PaulaÃ¢â¬â¢s colorful, graphical style, Carol YoshizumiÃ¢â¬â¢s beautiful step-by-step illustrations became a unique, core feature of The Lemonade Stand Cookbook of which IÃ¢â¬â¢m immensely proud. When you collaborateÃ with someone who goes above and beyond, you yield extraordinary results. Publishers Weekly praised our Ã¢â¬Å"polished designÃ¢â¬ in a recent review of The Lemonade Stand Cookbook, which was much-appreciated validation for this independently-published endeavor. PaulaÃ¢â¬â¢s skills and expertise were a perfect match for this project from the start, and our collaborative approach, open communication, and shared commitment to excellence led us to success.The Lemonade Stand CookbookÃ is available on Amazon.PleaseÃ share your thoughts, experiences, or any questions for Kathy and Paula, in the comments below!
Monday, October 21, 2019
The CIA The Central Intelligence Agency has remained on the front lines of American foreign policy for more than 50 years. The CIA's mission is to provide accurate and timely intelligence to the President and other leaders to prevent terrorism as well as to protect national security. Over the past few years the CIA has received some negative attention for both September 11th and the war in Iraq. While its failures are harshly criticized, many of the successes are never known. They work behind closed doors of our government, and the truth is, we don't know all that much about them (Wiki).The United States has been involved with espionage since its creation, the revolutionary war was known for having hundreds of spies. However, a espionage organization was never created, because the Army had always handled intelligence gathering. When Pearl Harbor was attacked in December 1941, and the country entered World War II, government officials soon realized that wars were won by those with the best in formation.Deputy Director of Central Intelligence addressed ...The government then created the department was the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). By end of the war the Soviet Union emerged as its rival and the Cold War got underway. The need for foreign intelligence was greater than ever. "Donovan, the creator of the OSS, proposed that the OSS be demilitarized and become an independent central agency responsible for all matters of intelligence gathering. (Wiki)" In 1947, President Truman signed the National Security Act, which creating the CIA."The CIA is the United States foreign intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to various branches of the U.S. government. (Wiki)" They gather information and conduct secret operations to protect national security. It is there job to analyze information from all U.S. intelligence agencies,
Sunday, October 20, 2019
Learn More About the History of the United States Postal Service On July 26, 1775, members of the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, agreed . . . that a Postmaster General be appointed for the United States, who shall hold his office at Philadelphia, and shall be allowed a salary of 1,000 dollars per annum . . . . That simple statement signaled the birth of the Post Office Department, the predecessor of the United States Postal Service and the second oldest department or agency of the present United States of America. Colonial TimesIn early colonial times, correspondents depended on friends, merchants, and Native Americans to carry messages between the colonies. However, most correspondence ran between the colonists and England, their mother country. It was largelyto handle this mail that, in 1639, the first official notice of a postal service in the colonies appeared. The General Court of Massachusetts designated Richard Fairbanks tavern in Boston as the official repository of mail brought from or sent overseas, in line with the practice in England and other nations to use coffee houses and taverns as mail drops. Local authorities operated post routes within the colonies. Then, in 1673, Governor Francis Lovelace of New York set up a monthly post between New York and Boston. The service was of short duration, but the post riders trail became known as the Old Boston Post Road, part of todays U.S. Route 1. William Penn established Pennsylvanias first post office in 1683. In the South, private messengers, usually slaves, connected the huge plantations; a hog head of tobacco was the penalty for failing to relay mail to the next plantation. Central postal organization came to the colonies only after 1691 when Thomas Neale received a 21-year grant from the British Crown for a North American postal service. Neale never visited America. Instead, he appointed Governor Andrew Hamilton of New Jersey as his Deputy Postmaster General. Neales franchise cost him only 80 cents a year but was no bargain; he died heavily in debt, in 1699, after assigning his interests in America to Andrew Hamilton and another Englishman, R. West. In 1707, the British Government bought the rights to the North American postal service from West and the widow of Andrew Hamilton. It then appointed John Hamilton, Andrews son, as Deputy Postmaster General of America. He served until 1721 when he was succeeded by John Lloyd of Charleston, South Carolina. In 1730, Alexander Spotswood, a former lieutenant governor of Virginia, became Deputy Postmaster General for America. His most notable achievement probably was the appointment of Benjamin Franklin as postmaster of Philadelphia in 1737. Franklin was only 31 years old at the time, the struggling printer and publisher ofÃ The Pennsylvania Gazette. Later he would become one of the most popular men of his age. Two other Virginians succeeded Spotswood: Head Lynch in 1739 and Elliot Benger in 1743. When Benger died in 1753, Franklin and William Hunter, postmaster of Williamsburg, Virginia, were appointed by the Crown as Joint Postmasters General for the colonies. Hunter died in 1761, and John Foxcroft of New York succeeded him, serving until the outbreak of the Revolution. During his time as a Joint Postmaster General for the Crown, Franklin effected many important and lasting improvements in the colonial posts. He immediately began to reorganize the service, setting out on a long tour to inspect post offices in the North and others as far south as Virginia. New surveys were made, milestones were placed on principal roads, and new and shorter routes laid out. For the first time, post riders carried mail at night between Philadelphia and New York, with the travel time shortened by at least half. In 1760, Franklin reported a surplus to the British Postmaster General , a first for the postal service in North America. When Franklin left office, post roads operated from Maine to Florida and from New York to Canada, and mail between the colonies and the mother country operated on a regular schedule, with posted times. In addition, to regulate post offices and audit accounts, the position of surveyor was created in 1772; this is considered the precursor of todays Postal Inspection Service. By 1774, however, the colonists viewed the royal post office with suspicion. Franklin was dismissed by the Crown for actions sympathetic to the cause of the colonies. Shortly after, William Goddard, a printer and newspaper publisher (whose father had been postmaster of New London, Connecticut, under Franklin) set up a Constitutional Post for inter-colonial mail service. Colonies funded it by subscription, and net revenues were to be used to improve the postal service rather than to be paid back to the subscribers. By 1775, when the Continental Congress met at Philadelphia, Goddards colonial post was flourishing, and 30 post offices operated between Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and Williamsburg. Continental Congress After the Boston riots in September 1774, the colonies began to separate from the mother country. A Continental Congress was organized at Philadelphia in May 1775 to establish an independent government. One of the first questions before the delegates was how to convey and deliver the mail. Benjamin Franklin, newly returned from England, was appointed chairman of a Committee of Investigation to establish a postal system. The report of the Committee, providing for the appointment of a postmaster general for the 13 American colonies, was considered by the Continental Congress on July 25 and 26. On July 26, 1775, Franklin was appointed Postmaster General, the first appointed under the Continental Congress; the establishment of the organization that became the United States Postal Service nearly two centuries later traces back to this date. Richard Bache, Franklins son-in-law, was named Comptroller, and William Goddard was appointed Surveyor. Franklin served until November 7, 1776. Americas present Postal Service descends in an unbroken line from the system he planned and placed in operation, and history rightfully accords him major credit for establishing the basis of the postal service that has performed magnificently for the American people. Article IX of the Articles of Confederation, ratified in 1781, gave Congress The sole and exclusive right and power . . . establishing and regulating post offices from one State to another . . . and exacting such postage on papers passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office . . . . The first three Postmasters GeneralBenjamin Franklin, Richard Bache, and Ebenezer Hazardwere appointed by, and reported to, Congress. Postal laws and regulations were revised and codified in the Ordinance of October 18, 1782. The Post Office Department Following the adoption of the Constitution in May 1789, the Act of September 22, 1789 (1 Stat. 70), temporarily established a post office and created the Office of the Postmaster General. On September 26, 1789, George Washington appointed Samuel Osgood of Massachusetts as the first Postmaster General under the Constitution. At that time there were 75 post offices and about 2,000 miles of post roads, although as late as 1780 the postal staff consisted only of a Postmaster General, a Secretary/Comptroller, three surveyors, one Inspector of Dead Letters, and 26 post riders. The Postal Service was temporarily continued by the Act of August 4, 1790 (1 Stat. 178), and the Act of March 3, 1791 (1 Stat. 218). The Act of February 20, 1792, made detailed provisions for the Post Office. Subsequent legislation enlarged the duties of the Post Office, strengthened and unified its organization, and provided rules and regulations for its development. Philadelphia was the seat of government and postal headquarters until 1800. When the Post Office moved to Washington, D.C., in that year, officials were able to carry all postal records, furniture, and supplies in two horse-drawn wagons. In 1829, upon the invitation of President Andrew Jackson, William T. Barry of Kentucky became the first Postmaster General to sit as a member of the Presidents Cabinet. His predecessor, John McLean of Ohio, began referring to the Post Office, or General Post Office as it was sometimes called, as the Post Office Department, but it was not specifically established as an executive department by Congress until June 8, 1872. Around this period, in 1830, an Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations was established as the investigative and inspection branch of the Post Office Department. The head of that office, P. S. Loughborough, is considered the first Chief Postal Inspector.
Saturday, October 19, 2019
Ethical Dilemma Essay - Assignment Example Therefore, since there is no choice in the matter, there is no breach of confidentiality or ethical violation when a student discusses a case with a supervisor. The second condition for an ethical dilemma is that there should be an alternative course of action to choose from. The third condition is that no matter the choice of action, some ethical principles should be compromised i.e. there is no proper solution (Cheryl R. Lehman, 2010). In order to determine what constitutes an ethical dilemma, it is important to make necessary distinction between ethics, morals, values, laws and policies. Ethics comprises of propositional statements used by members of certain profession or a group to determine what is right and wrong in a given situation. Ethics rely on rational and logical criteria during the decision making process. On the other hand, values describe the ideas that we value the most. To value something means to hold it dearly and feel a sense of worthiness in it. Morals describe a certain code of behavior that an individual ascribes and used to negotiate and strengthen our relationship. Since employees take most of their time during the weekday in the office, they are tempted to carry out their own businesses in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s time. This may comprise of such instances like setting up an appointment with a doctor using the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s phone lines, use of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s computers to make vacation reservations or even making freelance calls during office working hours. At the first instance, this ethical dilemma is quite clear: it is time and other abuse of employerÃ¢â¬â¢s time and resources to do personal business especially during the official working hours. But here are some shades of gray. Suppose your spouse calls to inform you that your children are sick? Is it right to look for a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment? It is very essential for an employee to check with his supervisor or manager so as to clarify what amounts to an actionable